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Peptic ulcer: Symptoms-complications And Treatment

Stomach discomfort
Source: "Kazoo Thelife"- under creative commons license

   Peptic ulcer is a term indicating an ulcer in the stomach or duodenum (the first part of the small intestine into which the stomach empties). The cause of this ailment is a corribination of nervousness, wrong food and individuals susceptibility. Some
people, take life too seriously and are very tense. In such cases the stomach is often aftected. By this tension. The muscles
become tight and the secretions are disturbed. This interfere with digestion. A tense outlet from the stomach becomes spastic and painful. In the course of time an ulcer develops. Sometimes this is in the stomach proper, but more often it is in the
duodenum. It may vary from a fourth of an inch in diameterto over an inch.

Symptoms :
It is possible to have a peptic ulcer with
no pain at all ; however, typically the first thing one notices is a pain or burning sensation in the epigastrium, which is just
below the breastbone. This symptom is relieved by eating food,but it returns within an hour. These symptoms may become worse for a while, then stop for some weeks, returning later to be repeated in the same way.

Treatment :

Sippy powders have been used, for many
years and are found to be very effective. In recent years, however, it was found that these disturb the acid-base balance of
the body ; so a search was made for something to neutralize the acids in the stomach, thus eliminating this objectionable feature.
Aluminium hydroxide and aluminium trisilicate were found to be suitable. They can be given without fear of overdose.
   Outwardly ulcer patients may not appear to be tense, but inwardly they are. This tension may be reduced by the use of
1/2 teaspoonful of tincture of belladonna every four hours to relax the muscle spasm; however, an objectionable feature of
this remedy is that it tends to make the mouth dry, which limits its usefulness. Miltown, largactil and other tranquillizers
may be used two or three times a day to relax the general nervous tension during periods of special stress.
  The diet should be bland. The patient may follow a strictly milk diet for a month, but usually other bland foods such as eggs, bananas, strained fruits and vegetables, are included. it essential that alcohol, tea, coffee, tobacco and spices be discontinued.
   Most important factor in the cure of ulcers is the mental attitude. When things are quiet and serene the ulcer begins to
heal. The opposite occurs in times of stress and strain. It should  the the studied purpose of the patient to avoid personalities and situations that upset him. When he is unable to do this, he should learn to adjust his thinking so as not to become, upset no matter what happens.

Complications :

  There are three complications that may
develop ; two of them come without warning.

 1. The ulcer may be near the outlet of the stomach and after a period of time scar tissues form and later contract so that this opening through which the food should leave the stomach becomes constricted. If this happens the patient vomits on taking solid food. Only liquids can get through. In order to relieve this condition a new opening must be made from the stomach into the duodenum. suddenly

2. The patient may sunddenly vomit substances, resembling coffe grounds,
mixed with fresh blood. This indicates that the ulcer has eroded into a blood-vessel and poured considerable blood into the stomach. The patient should then be hospitalized, for there is little one can do for the patient at home except to put him
to bed. In the hospital hypodermics can be given to stop the bleeding and the blood level can be checked periodically to see
that it is being maintained at the proper level. Transfusions and possibly surgery may bie necessary.

Read: Other diseases of The digestive system such as indigestion

3. The patient may suddenly be seized with a sharp abdominal pain such as he has never had before. The abdominal wall
becomes tense. This is the result of the ulcer's having eroded through the wall so that the contents of the stomach are being
poured into the abdominal cavity. Because the fluid is acid, it causes great pain. This is an acute emergency and operation must be performed at once, for if the condition exists more than a few hours unattended the patient may not recover.


The New Health and Longevity by A. C. Selmon a. The Oriental Watchman Publishing House, 1960. 

Abdominal Discomfort - Indigestion And Five Important Causes

Abdominal Discomfort

ABDOMINAL DISCOMFORT IS ONE of the most common complaints in the tropics. Sometimes this is caused by food that is eaten but more often by infection. 
Complaints of the digestive system tend to become chronic ; so every effort should be put forth to alleviate them as soon as they 
are noticed. 


  The term indigestion is now used in place of dyspepsia. 
The latter term covered a multitude of complaints which have been individually defined and diagnosed ; so that now we 
difterentiate between specific conditions (like ulcers, cancer,colitis and disturbances due to mistreatment of the digestive system)and symptoms of general diseases. A discussion of peptic ulcer and cancer will follow, but first let us go into the topic of 
gastritis, a term which denotes an inflammation of the stomach. 
   A stomach disorder may accompany almost any general ailment such as influenza, chicken-pox, or dehydration but the distress is due to a stimulation of the central nervous system, not to any condition in the stomach itself This is 
a commonobservation and is mentioned only in passing. 
   The suffix " it is" attached to a name of a part of the body an inflammation of that part. Appendicitis, for instance, is an inflammation of the appendix; colitis an 
inflammation of the colon encephalitis, inflammation of encephalon (brain). And so on. So gastritis is an inflammation of 
the stomach. (The Greek word for belly is gastros.) Until the gastroscope was invented, this ailment was not considered as a disease in its own right but only an accompaniment of other diseases. But now with this instrument doctors are able to look and see the condition of the walls. They see swelling of the lining with bleeding here and there, and patches 
where the cells are, destroyed. Sometimes they see red patches with a centre like the pus of a pimple. These are large areas 
from l/4 to 1/2 inch in diameter. 
   It his important for individual to learn what brings on gastritis. 

There are five important causes : 

1.  Faulty Diet : Strong spices are commonly known to be 
irritating. Mustard, for instance, when put on the skin will cause 
marked irritation and burning with discomfort. The skin can 
tolerate it only about 15 minutes before the blood-vessels 
become dilated. Pepper is also very irritating. Chillies burn all the 
way to the stomach. Such cannot help but do to the lining of the stomach what we know they do to the outside skin. No
wonder, then, That the gastroscope reveals heemorrhages, destroyed cells and areas of redness on the lining of the stomach.
Cinnamon, Gloves, ginger, nutmeg and other mild spices when 
used sparingly, may not be harmful ; but if they are used to the extent that they cover up the original flavour of the food, they are used in too great a quantity. One must be careful lest he begin to require more and more of the spice flavours and desire 
less and less of the original flavour of the food.

    Coffe and tea have alao been found to have the same effect as spices and should be avoided on the same basis. They are objectionable also in that they contain caffeine,which acts as a stimulant and cardiac irritant
  Very rough foods are irritating to the stomach be well chewed. In fact thorough mastication is always important.

2. Alcohol : This is also adverse effect on the nervous system, it causes redness and hemorrhage in the stomach.

3. Thermal Influences : Many people like to drink hot tea or coffee. They drink it piping hot. The bad thing about this
is that food or drink that is too hot for the mouth is swallowed quickly. After leaving the throat it seeing  not to, burn any more
but this relief is only apparent. It is true that the oesophagus and stomach are not sensitive to heat, but the damage to the
mucous membrane is just the same as  if the food had been kept in the mouth. If food or drink is too, hot to keep in your mouth do not swallow it.

4. Abnormal Distension : Some people's appetites are never satisfied until their stomach is thoroughly : distended with
food. This disturbs the normal peristalsis (wave action) of the stomach and is one of the causes of gastritis

5. Chemical Irritants : Many people are continually taking aspirin, which has been found to be another cause of gastritis. Ammonium chloride, quinine and digitalis will have the same effect and should therefore be taken only under supervision.


The New Health and Longevity by A. C. Selmon a. The Oriental Watchman Publishing House, 1960. 

 Prevention and Treatment of Heart Diseases - Using Low Salt Diet

How Does Heart Operates?

   No other organ of the body is as wonderful as the heart. It begins beating before birth and continues without interruption for threescore years and ten and even longer in many cases ; It cannot rest for longer than a fraction of a second at any one time, for if it were to rest for an unbroken period of even three minutes the
individual concerned would lose his mental powers ; a little longer and the person would die.

Because the heart is the" vital organ"and also because of many vague and erroneous ideas held about it, a study of its anatomy and functions and a brief survey of diseases that affect it will be profitable and interesting.
   There are four chambers in the heart, two above and two below. Looking at the diagram , you will see a semi-diagrammatic view of the heart.
    The upper right chamber receives the impure blood returning from the body through the inferior and superior
vena cava the contraction of the auricle forces the blood to the lower chamber (right ventricle) which in turn sends the blood into the lungs.
    Returning from the lungs through four vessels leading directly into the left auricle, it goes to the left ventricle below and is forced into the aorta and on through the body. In the wall of the right auricle is an area which sends out the impulse for
the auricles to contract. This impulse extends in a circular direction through both auricles. When it reaches the septum
or the dividing wall of the lower chambers (ventricles) it contacts what is known as the "Bundle of His." This transmits a signal to the lower chambers (ventricles) to stimulate their contraction. The signal is so precisely timed that the contraction of the ventricles follows that of the auricles just enough later that the blood in the auricles is forced into the ventricles to fill them before the ventricles contract. Both auricles contract
at the same time. Both ventricles contract a fraction of a second later.
    After this, stimulation, to contract is suspended for an instant, during which period the heart rests, thus getting its
rest piecemeal instead of in long stretcher as other muscles do.
The circulation of the blood in the heart muscle itself comes from the aorta and flows through two arteries called the anterior and the posterior coronaries.
    Occasionally infants are born with deformities of the heart that do not allow the blood to circulate properly. The result is a lack of oxygen carried to the tissues, from which fact the term "blue babies"has evolved. Most of these babies die early but
some of them can be cured by surgery.
    If a baby's heart at birth is normal there is no need to worry about its functioning properly. It will do its work without special attention till the degenerative process of old age sets in. The only exception to this rule is in cases where an infection such as syphilis, diphtheria or rheumatic fever disables the heart.
Of all such possibilities the latter is by far the most common. A person born with a good heart will rarely have any trouble with it before the declining years of life unless he contracts one. of the above named diseases.

That's all about the heart of the matter. Let discuss further what causes heart failure

Treatment of Heart Diseases 

 Much can be done for the heart patient, thanks to careful study and research of recent years and resultant medications

Diet : As important as anything else is the food the patient eats. Food should be very light and not taken in large amounts. In severe heart cases five small feedings per day are often advised. The point is to avoid a full stomach, for this places a heavy burden on the heart.
   Animal fats should be definitely restricted. Eggs, butter,cheese, and meat should not be included in the diet. Fats
should all be of vegetable origin. Safflower oil (kardi) is the best.
Corn oil is next best. Groundnut oil is good. Coconut oil, unfortunately, is not good.
   A low salt diet is also indicated. Salt should be used only moderately, by all in fact, and those who are accustomed to
using it liberally should change the habit. The use of enough salt to cover a flat taste is sufficient. But the heart patient must
be especially strict. It would be well for the patient to limit the intake to 250 milligrams per day. A low salt diet must never exceed 500 milligrams per day. For a list of the salt content of foods and choose your diet from
those low in salt. If you desire you may get a salt substitute at the chemist's shop.

Example of salt content in common foods in milligrams per 100grams

- Apples 0.2salt (mg)
- Avocado 3.0salt(mg)
- Asparagus 2.0salt(mg)
- Apricots 0.6salt(mg)
- Bananas 0.5salts(mg)
- Beans cooked 1.0salts(mg)
- Barley 3.0salts(mg)
- Cabbage (raw) 5.0salt(mg)
- cauliflower 24.0salt(mg)
- Cherries 1.0salt(mg)
- Coconut 16.0salt(mg)
- Corn 0.3salt(mg)
- Dhal 3.0salt(mg)
- Egg 81.0salt(mg)
- Figs 37.0salt(mg)
- Grapefruit 0.5salt(mg)
- Guavas 0salt(mg)
- Honey 7.0salt(mg)
- Lemons 0.7salt(mg)
- lime juice 1.0salt(mg)
- Margarine 58.0salt(mg)
- Milk,goat 34.0salt(mg)
- Olives 980.0salt(mg)
- Onions 1.0salt(mg)
- Peaches 5.0salt(mg)
- Pineapple juice 0.5salt(mg)
- Potato chips 340salt(mg)
- Potatoes, sweet 0salt(mg)
- Rice,white 2.0salt(mg)
- Radishes 9.0salt(mg)
- Soya beans (dry) 4.0salt(mg)
- Spinach 0salt(mg)
- Squash 2.0salt(mg)
- Sugar 0.3salt(mg)
- Soojee 11.0salt(mg)
- Tangerines 2.0salt(mg)
- Tapioca 5.0salt(mg)
- Tomato juice (commercial) 230.0salt(mg)
- Tomato ketchup 1300.0salt(mg)
- Tomatoes (raw) 3.0salt(mg)
- Turnips (cooked) 0salt(mg)
- Walnuts 2.0salt(mg)
- Water melon 0.3salt(mg)
- Wheat flour 11.0salt(mg).
And much more.

- The New Health and Longevity by A. C. Selmon a. The Oriental Watchman Publishing House, 1960. 

- The New Complete medical and health(volume 1,2,3,4)
Richard J. Wagman, M.D., F.A.C.P.
Published by Ferguson Pub, 1989

Pneumonia: Causes, Symptoms, Preventive Measures, And Specific Treatment 

Pneumonia  is a disease of the lungs, caused by pneumococcus, streptococcus, 
staphylococcs and a number of other bacteria. The so called lobar pneumonia is caused by pneumococcus and is the most 
severe and dramatic, starting suddenly and ending inacrisis. it is a very prostrating disease, and in the past has taken a heavy 
toll of human lives. 

Symptoms of Pneumonia 

-  The infection begins with a severe chill. 

- The temperature 

rises quickly and there is pain in the chest. 

- There is a short, dry, 

painful cough, and the rate of breathing is greatly increased. 

- The patient lies on the right or left side and not on the back. 

- The face becomes flushed, especially one or both cheeks fever 
blisters appear on the lips. - The sputum expectorated is tinged 

with blood. 

- After the fever has continued high for several days, 
there is an abrupt drop, usually accompanied by abundant 


- Following this the patient feels more comfortable,
and, unless some accident occurs, will continue to improve and 

will recover in two or three weeks.

    Some die before this drop in 

temperature. Formerly, three or four out of every ten who 
contracted pneumonia died of the disease.           Those who are given 

to use intoxicating liquor freely, experience more difficulty in 
recovering from an attack of pneumonia. 

Preventive Measutes of Pneumonia  :

- The germs of pneumonia are distributed widely. We cannot escape them ; but if the body is kept strong and healthy the pneumonia germ cannot damage it. 
- The natural power of the body to resist disease germs is weakened by the use of any form of wine or tobacco, lack of proper food or too much food, living in dark, poorly ventilated houses, sleeping with doors and windows closed or the head covered, sitting humped over, and by catching cold. 
-    Pneumonia is spread through the discharges from the nose, through the sputum, and from coughing and sneezing. 
- Pneumonia may also be contracted by using a drinking cup that has been used by others, and by breathing dusty air on the streets, or the dusty air caused by sweeping the house. 

Specific Treatment of Pneumonia  :

 The mortality from pneumonia 
has bem very greatly reduced since the introduction : of sulpha drugs and penicillin. Of the two the latter is the one of choice. 
Six hundred thousand units of penicillin per day will bring the infection under control in less than two days. If you are isolated 
and no doctor is available to administer the injection, you can sometimes get pmicillin pills. Give about 200, 000 units every six 
hours or two tablets of sulpha every four hours. After two days reduce to one tablet four times a day for four to six days. 
These drugs should preferably be given on order from a competent physician. 

  The fever drops within twenty four to forty eight hours. 
Ordinarily the medication should be continued for at least three days following the drop in temperatme. Very frequently the 
medication is stopped as so as the temperature falls, with the result that a few days later a relapse occurs which may be more serious than the first attack. 

  The patient should have plenty of fresh warm air, his feet should be kept warm and his bowels open by light cathartics or enemas. Lemonade, lime juice or plain water should be given freely to drink. The food should be liquid, such as rice gruel, 
soups, or eggs either soft-boiled or raw. 

The patient should expectorate into pieces of paper or old cloth and these should be burned. 

How Does Pneumonia Occur in Children 

    Pneumonia in children is different from that in the adult.
In adults pneumococci are the principal causative bacteria. The whole lobe of the lung is involved'and becomes as solid and red as a piece of liver. Furthermore, for adults the disease is far more toxic and lethal.. In children, on the other hand, pneumonia is usually caused by streptococcus or staphylococcus. These cause bronchial pneumonia, wihich involves patches of lung through Out a lobe but does not incapacitate the nfhole lobe. The left lung is made up of two lobes and the right of three lobes.
Children Who are victims of this infection should be kept in bed and given penicinin or, if not available, sulpha drugs by
mouth. One tablet every four hours is a reasonable dose but this should be cut down to half a tablet for infants. After two
or three days the dosage should be reduced by half.
The diet and general nursing care should  be the same as for any severe disease. Great care should be taken during the
Convalescents period to make sure that there are no draughts on the patient and, in cold weather, that the air the child breathes
is warm and moist.


The New Health and Longevity by A. C. Selmon a. The Oriental Watchman Publishing House, 1960. 

Smallpox : Causes, Treatment, and Vaccination Processes 

An infant suffering from smallpox

   Smallpox is one of the most dreaded of all infectious diseases, and one of the most contagious. When smatlpox is epidemic, not more than one or two out of every one hundred unvaccinated persons in a community are likely to escape the disease. It attacks old and young, male and female. From of old there is no disease that has been more feared by the people in every land, than smallpox, for not only is it very contagious, but also extremely virulent. wuen it afflicts the unvaccinated the death rate ranges from 10 to 80 per cent. In case the one afflicted escapes death, he is almost certain to be disfigured for life with pock marks on the face or to be blind in one or
both eyes.

    Smallpox is caused by a very stable virus which may remain alive for months under favourable circumstances, particularly in a dry environment. It may remain on the floor or on the walls of a house for months and infect persons coming in contact with
the room. The crusts and scales are very infectious. The bedsheets carry the virus to the laundry. It may also be carried in the air of the sick room or be transmitted by letters written from the sick room ( othere materials that is edible). No age or sex is immune, and aboriginal peoples seem especially vulnerable.

   The diagnosis is made by noting the toxicity of the individual, which is much greater than in cases of chicken pox. He
becomes restless and irritable. He has headaches and excruciating backache with vomiting and prostration. His temperature soars to 103° to 104° F, the pulse and respiration are rapid. The lesions in smallpox are especially noted on the face, the palms and the feet, and are all formed in one stage of development. This is in
contrast with chicken pox, where the lesions are formed gradually, going through various stages and all being located more
on the trunk of the body. There are three difterent strains of smallpox, varying from comparatively mild to very severe. This
accounts for the variance of the mortality rate, ranging from 10 to 60 or even 80 per cent.

   Treatment :

 There is no specific treatment. The patient
should be kept as comfortable as possible. The first thing is to set up a rigid quarantine of the case, permitting only one or two people to attend the patient. Those who care for him should always wear a special gown. Upon leaving his room they should
remove this and leave it hanging just inside the door. The local health authorities should be informed and the best medical help in the area should be engaged. Bed covers should be kept off the skin with suitable cradles. The mouth should be cleansed with antiseptic mouth washes. One teaspoonful of salt in a pint of warill water makes a good mouth wash. Sedatives such as phenobarbital should be used to quiet the patient, and at times morphine may also be used to ease the pain.

   During the time when pustules develop, terramycin or penicillin may be given to prevent secondary infection. 1f one of the lesions becomes septic, some penicillin or preferably bacitracin ointment should be applied. No other local treatment is necessary.

Vaccination :

    The only way to prevent smallpox is to
have a vaccination every three years
Previous to 1796 there was no method known by which smallpox could be cured ; neither was there any method known
by which the. Disease could be prevented. But in that year an English physician by the name of Edward Jenner discovered the method of vaccination as a means of protection against smallpox.

Read Also : 6 paths that actually allow disease to enter the body. 

    The micro organism that produces smallpox in man also produces a somewhat similar disease in the cow called cowpox.
The lymph used in vaccinating is obtained from a calf affliicted with cowpox. It is injected into the body of a man and a
vaccination eruption results at the point vaccinated. The procedure is a ccompanied by some fever throughout the whole body.
Following this the person is protected for a longer or shorter period against smallpox even though he may be directly exposed.

Read Also : Tetanus: One of the most common infectious diseases 

   From the time that Jenner discovered vaccination against smallpox, many countries have adopted this preventive method on a national basis, with the result that there has been a great decrease in the number of people who have died of smallpox during the past 100 yeats. For example, Germany in 1874 passed a law making re-vaccination and compulsory. This law requires the vaccination of all infants before they are twelve months old and re-vaccination at the age of twelve years. Since that year there has been no epidemic of smallpox in Germany, All countries where vaccinations are done have the same success, so much so that many countries today are completely free from the threat of this contagion.
    Vaccination with the lymph from cowpox is the only absolute preventive against smallpox. It is the duty of every father and mother to have each child (whether male or female) vaccinated before it is a year old and to have it re-vaccinated every three years.


Vaccination against smallpox
Edward Jenner

The New Health and Longevity by A. C. Selmon a. The Oriental Watchman Publishing House, 1960. Hardcover. Good. 1960
If this blog is helpful to you kindly comment below and subscribe through email to received more update and lot free download, through my subscribe me button below. After all, sharing is a caring. Share!

Tetanus: Causes, Prevention,Treatment, And More Advice to The Nurses or physician

Tetanus: Causes, Prevention, Treatment, And More Advice to The Nurses or physician.

   Tetanus germs live in a place where there is but little oxygen. For this reason deep penetrating wounds are most dangerous. When they are contaminated by dirt or soiled clothes and sealed over by injured tissue, the danger that tetanus may develop is much greater.  Any wound should therefore be throughly cleaned or wash with soap and any bruised tissue should be removed. It should also be integrated with hydrogen peroxide, for this supplies free oxygen into the potentiallydangerous area.
Three to six thousand units of antiserum should be given.
    However, if the wound  is extensive, up to 10,000 units should be given and if not healed within ten days this dosage should be repeated.
     If the patient has been vaccinated against tetanus, instead of the above treatment he should be given another tetanus booster vaccination once. No antiserum is necessary. It should be noted that we are considering the prevention of tetanus.
The treatment requires larger doses as described below.
     When tetanus develops, two complications are especially noted. The patient will be unable to open is jaw ( from which paralysis the term 'lock jaw ' has been derived ) and he goes into convulsions upon being disturbed by any noise or even by the movement of the limb. His face takes on a rigid appearance when some of these convulsions occur, so much  that the muscles of respiration cannot function properly.

Read Also :6 paths that allow disease to enter into our body

Treatment :

  Most authorities prescribed 100,000 units of antiserum for these cases and cover the dosage with antihistamines. This injection is given intramuscularly immediately on admission to the hospital and no further serum is given there after. Skin test are always done before the serum is injected .
Five million units of penicillin are administered daily as a prophylactic against the possibility of pneumonia.
Should the patient be sensitive to penicillin, terramycin can be used  . The wound is usually not trimmed or disturbed until the second day, but some authorities advice injection of 10,000 to 20,00 units of antiserum around the wound and also around the affected limb near the torso  ( body ).
    Mephenesin  ( 2 tablets ) is given every six hours to relax the muscles, and phenobarbital  ( 30 MG ) three times a day to help prevent convulsions .
    A special nurse must be on hand at all times to watch the patient.
    Absolute quiet must be maintained at all times, for any unusual noise could trigger a convulsion and the patient could die at once.
     If the patient is not doing well after two or three days, some authorities give an additional 20,000 units of serum. In doing this, great care must be exercised against sensitivity.
     By the tenth day serum reactions generally begin, which are controlled by antihistamines and cortisone.
     After recovery the patient still needs to be vaccinated for tetanus. In fact, not only  the patient but all healthypeople as well should be regularly vaccinated against the disease. Also it should be noted, and we state this with emphasis, that even after having been thus immunized against tetanus, no one should ignore a contaminated wound, especially on the foot. At once he should go for a "booster " injection. This will quickly boost his immunity, raising it to a level as high or higher than a prophylactic dose of tetanus antiserum. It will do this, however, only if previous tetanus vaccinations have been regularly kept up.

And One More Advice to The Nurses or physician :

  Be sure that every cut is washed out throughly with soap and water and rinsed with hydrogen peroxide.  Even for a small wound such precautions should be taken lest tetanus infection should set in. If there is any question give tetanus vaccination booster for those who have been vaccinated for tetanus and three to six thousand units of antiserum for those who have not had the vaccination.


The New Health and Longevity by A. C. Selmon a. The Oriental Watchman Publishing House, 1960. 
If this blog  is helpful to you kindly comment below and subscribe through email to received more update and lot free download, through my subscribe me button below. After all, sharing is a caring. Share!

The Use of a Device or Procedure to Prevent Conception 

The Use of a Device or Procedure to Prevent Conception

  There is considerable opposition on the part of many to the idea of birth control by prevention of conception. With some this aversion stems from adherence to a particular theory or dogma. There are groups in the world which rely largely upon the normal increase of the population of their membership for their growth. Such organizations would oppose any attemptsuggestions at lowering the birth rate. They believe that a volume of this kind is not complete unless it gives some attention to the problem of family planning. This is done with a desire to be helpful to those whose homes have not been blessed with children and also to those who may wish for legitimate reasons to limit the size of their families.
    There are times when because of the health condition of the mother or the economical condition of the family, it becomes necessary to limit the number of children in the home.
What course is open to such married couples who wish to control the number of their offspring and yet desire to have normal sexual relationship? To begin with, the so called  ( safe period ) is really not safe, for studies have shown that conception can take place any time during the menstrual cycle.
Many practice withdrawal but this is not recommended and is not safe for the partners. It's continues use leads to congestion of the prostate in the male and nervousness in the wife. Douches will often prevent pregnancy but this is uncertain. Equally uncertain are suppositories.
    Some couples practice what is known as the rhythm method.There is no evidence that this is a dependable method of family planning. The best course to pursue is to have the wife fitted with a diaphragm. This effectively bars the spermatozoa from entering the cervix ( lower portion of the womb ).
Along with the diaphragm a contraceptive jelly can be used which will kill the sperm. If this is not available the next best thing is the condom. This is made of thin rubber and fits over the penis.
    In cases where the family has three or more children already and feel this is all they can economically care for, the best procedure for preventing further pregnancy is to have the husband undergo a vesectomy. If this operation is performed by a competent physician, it provides a certain method for preventing future pregnancy. It is simply done and does not affect the potency of the man nor does it interfere with his reactions. Furthermore, it is perfectly safe. If circumstances should arise later, causing the couple to desire more children, the vas can be reconnected. But if this is to be successful it must be done within five or six years after the vasectomy, and even then the likelihood of success is only 50%.
    Another way to prevent pregnancies is for the woman to have her fallopian tubes tied. This is a simple procedure if it his done within two days after the delivery of a baby.
It his not recommended after that time. If done later, it becomes a major operation, requiring a large opening of the abdomen.

The Problem of been barren or infertile 

While many families face the problems of too many children, others are perplexed by not being able to have any. This latter is one of the more difficult problems in medicine and efforts in solving it have not been too successful. There is, however, an orderly procedure for searching out the cause. First and foremost, the male is the easiest to rule in or out. A fresh specimen of his semen should be examined under a microscope to see if sperm are present, active, mobile and well shaped. This takes only a few minutes. Ifeverything is normal the wife should next be examined.
    This examination must be done by a well-qualified gynecologist, who will first examine the cervix to see if there is a mucous plug in the opening which might be preventing the entrance of the sperm. A check will also be made for possible fibrous obstruction; if such should be found, a dilation may be necessary. The uterus itself may be malformed; but the most common problem is the obstruction of the tubes leading from the area of the ovaries. Whether this is causing the difficulty or not can be determined by injecting into the uterus a solution which throws a shadow under the X-ray. Should there be anobstruction, the fluid will get to it and go no farther. Should this occur the doctor can blow carbon dioxide through the tubes and possibly open them up.  If this does not prove successful, there is no use considering surgery, for it will not be successful either. The only solution in such cases is for the couple to adopt a child. Having done this, many have learned to love their adopted child as though it were their own.
   Very frequently a marriage remains childless in spite of the fact that no medical problem seems to be involved. In such cases the couple should not lose hope. It is possible even after several years their efforts to have a baby may be rewarded. They should keep in mind that the best time to effect a pregnancy is at the ovulation period. To ascertain this time ask the wife to take her temperature every morning Just before she gets out of bed. Most days it will, of course, be normal, but at the time of the ovum has left the ovary the temperature may rise or it will go up. This, the couple can know, is the most favourable time and they should watch for it each month. It would be well for them to refrain for about a week before the expected ovulation period. It should be noticed also that theoretically the time in the menstrual cycle when pregnancy is most likely to occur is about 14 days after the last period. While this is the most favourable time, it has also been demonstrated that pregnancy may be effected at any time in the cycle. There is no " safe period"  for those who do not wish to have more children. A soda douche before intercourse is good for those desiring children. A boric acid douche would have the opposite effect.


The New Health and Longevity by A. C. Selmon a. The Oriental Watchman Publishing House, 1960. 
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