The historical history of dental therapy of nigeria began as far back at 1970


The history of Dental Therapy profession dates backs to the pre-colonial era.  High incidence of periodontal diseases and cancrum oris were prevalent and are still common in Nigeria.  This was due to poor oral hygiene and lack of good nutrition in the early fifties.  Thus, the ever increasing demand for oral healthcare led to an increase in the awareness of the importance and the use of preventive measure.  This brought about the birth of Dental Therapy profession.
A team of dentists came from United Kingdom as a result of ever growing dental problems to find out the possibility of establishing a cadre that would be trained to complement the service of the dentists.


In 1958, a school was established by Miss Vera Mary Creaton, a Briton at No. 1 Broad Street, Lagos for the training of Dental Hygienists  which later metamorphosis into the Federal School of Dental Technology & Therapy, Enugu-Nigeria.
In 1961, the school was granted accreditation which was renewable every 10 years by the team from Britain led by Sir Williams Kesley Fry.
A Dental Therapist is therefore a member of a Dental Health Team who provides therapeutical and quality dental care to various sections of the community at the three tiers of our Healthcare Delivery System vis-à-vis Primary, Secondary and Tertiary.
Source: "Dthrbn" - under creative common license


The Dental Therapy Programme prepares well rounded, well equipped professional therapists who can effectively operate in all aspects of oral healthcare.
It affords dental therapists the opportunity to rise to an excellent degree in health profession.


The Dental Therapists perform such varied clinical functions –
  1. Oral examination in both adults and children
  2. Scaling/polishing
  3. Taking impressions on teeth
  4. Apply materials to teeth such as fluoride and fissure sealants
  5. Provide routine restorations from class 1-V in permanent and deciduous teeth
  6. Can use all materials except pre cast or pinned placements
  7.  Pulp therapy treatment of deciduous teeth
  8. Placement of performed metal crowns on deciduous teeth
  9. Extracts deciduous teeth under local analgesia
  10. Emergency placement of crowns and filling s if removed during treatment
  11. Take impressions for study models
  12. Treat patients under conscious sedation provided that the dentist remains in the surgery through the treatment
  13. Intra oral and extra oral assessment
  14. Record indices and monitor disease
  15. Sub gingival debridgement
  16. Take dental radiographs
  17. Provide dental health education on a one on one basis or in a group situation.
  18. Provide treatment for those that are mentally, physically and medically compromised.

Successful completion of the course and one year internship programme results in the award of Higher National Diploma (HND)/ Bachelor of Science (B.Sc)/(B.DTh) in Dental Therapy.


  1. B.Sc Dental Therapy
5 Credits in Mathematics, Physics, Biology and English.

  1. HND Dental Therapy
4 credits in any of the following:
Mathematics, English, Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Health Science




Post graduate programme are available in different countries all over the world, including Britain, Canada, Australia, USA and South Africa.


Advances non-surgical periodontal therapy
  • Specialists in Antiom
  • Specialist in nyo-function therapy
  • Orthodontics care
  • Care of implant
  • Forensic Procedures
  • Dental Health Education


Opportunity abounds for dental therapists in public and private hospitals, clinics and dental health training institutions.


In 1986, the Nigerian Dental Therapists Association drew the attention of the Federal Ministry of Health to the need to establish a regulatory body for the control of the training and practice of Dental Therapy, Dental Surgery Assistants and others.
On 25th August 1993, an enabling Decree establishing the Dental Therapists Registration Board of Nigeria was promulgated via Decree 81 to regulate and control the training and practice of Dental Therapy, Dental Surgery Assistants and other members.
Presently, the Board is located at No. 8A Oba Adeyinkla Oyekan Street, Off 2nd Avenue, Ikoyi-Lagos, Nigeria.


  • http://dthrbn.gov.ng


How does bronchial asthma attack, causes, treatment and related infection to the lungs.

 It his obvious that ASTHMA his no longer new disease that do occur to people, but as the name implies 'bronchial asthma' is what we are going to treat.

  •  How does asthma attack?
  • Causes, 
  • Treatment and related infection to the lungs is what we will be looking at.

Everybody who have lung could develop bronchial asthma. But the fact is if this disease arise how are we going to treat it?

What is bronchial asthma?

 Asthma is a disease that affect or attack our breathing that are associated with spasms of our bronchial muscles and trigger congestion and swelling of the mucous membrane of the bronchial tubes in the lungs. So, bronchial asthma is a lung disorder.

What are the Causes of bronchial asthma?

Asthma is often caused by a combination of complex and incompletely understand environment and genetic interactions.

There are various known factors that could caused it, but the common ones are listed below:
  • Such as cold
  • hey fever
  • the inhaling of dust
  • pollens from trees or flowers (allergy)
  • or the odours from animal such as horse, cow, cat or dog
  • over eating (constipation) or the use of certain foods or chemicals may bring on an attack.
  • Sudden fright or emotional disturbance may also trigger one. 
. These factors influence both its severity and its responsiveness to treatment.

  • Such as hygiene

  During childhood age, non-pathogenic bacteria and viruses could be the cause. The only way out is to maintain general cleanliness at all time.

  • Genetic

Family history could be the risk factor of asthma.

  • Some medical conditions
  • Exacerbation

Signs and Symptoms of bronchial asthma 

 In recent time, there are various signs and symptoms that is well known, but the major ones are listed below;
  • The chest and all the muscles of respiration vibrate violently.
  • You will notice a peculiar  wheezing sound with each expiration.
  • You will notice the face becomes pale and drawn
  • The hands and the feet may be cold too.
  • The patient cough will be very dry and tight and much more.

How is bronchial asthma diagnosed?

 According to medical research, it is very important for you to describe in details to your doctors, and your details symptoms, or your child, signs and symptoms to your doctors or physician.

 Since asthma symptoms dont always happen during your doctor apiontment or in the presence of your doctor.

What you might notice is that the symptoms may occur as a result during exercise, when there is cold, or smoke.

 Some of the tests that might be conducted or carried out are;
  • Chest x ray
 Your doctor may encourage you to go for a proper chest xray to determined cause and other similar symptoms.
  • Spirometry
 Your doctor may recommend lung test to be able to measure your breathing capacity and how well you breathe.
    • Peak expiratory flow 
    This is also taken to measure the air you can expend out of your lungs. Using a device called peak flow meter.

    What are the treatment of bronchial asthma?


      The first treatment of asthma is to first determine the cause. Sometimes emotional upsets often initiate the attack. 

    For example;
    1. If it comes only during certain season of the year, it may be due to pollens from trees or flowers.
    2. If it comes with a cold, the causative factor could be sensitivity to the bacteria.
    3. If it comes when certain foods are taken, that food may be the cause of the asthma attack.
    4. Fish, eggs, and some certain fruit may also caused the attack too.
     Careful observation is necessary to detect the specific cause in each individual case.
    Should one or more of the above mention seems to be the cause, a vaccine is made or can be made to treat the individual and be vaccinated against it.
    This is soften prepared in a good bacteriology laboratory.

      For treatment of asthmatic attack it is very necessary to ensure the drugs that we give immediate relief from the attack is at hand. In severe cases adrenalin (epinephrine) can be administered by the physician .

     A drug closely related to adrenalin is ephedrine. this can be taken by mouth and the asthmatic patient can have this on hand. These drugs relieve the laboured breathing by relaxing the muscles at the neck of the air sacks.

      Another important thing that can be done is to liquefy the mucus in the lungs. This mucus can be very tenacious and are elastic as rubber, which make it difficult to cough up.
      The best medicine for this is potassium iodide. Ten drops of a saturated solution are taken three times a day. It is bitter and should be swallowed with water or juices. 

      Also, drugs no as antihistamines is a good one. Some people we find one drug effective and others another; so you should experiment and choose the drugs that his good for you.
    The common drugs are anthisan, avil, pyribenzamine, benadryl.

      The nervouseness which often occour during the asthmatic attack could make the disease worse. 
    • To reduce this, it his important you give 15mg of phenobarbital can be given three times a day. 
    • Do not give too much and only give when is needed. All of the above drug are safe if giving reasonably.
    • Potassium iodide and antihistamines should be taken regularly during the time one has the attack, and should continued when after the attack is gone, as this we keep the patient from having a further attack.
      They give a great deal of relief and we often stop or reduce the attacks.

    What are the First aid for bronchial asthma?

     When this asthmatic attack occur, this is what it should be done;
    • The patient is compelled to sit up in order to breathe.
    • Remove all tight fitting cloth.
    • Adrenaline should be given by a spray in the nose. This is a very good way of reducing the attack, because it does nor require the preparation of hypodermic needle nor the help of some one other than the patient and it does not reqire long proceses.
    • Another drug that can be given is by taken ephedrine by the mouth (orally).
    • After some hours the patient may sleep exhausted or the attack will reduce gradually.

    Related conditions / Associated conditions with asthma

    According to medical research, other more conditions occur to those with asthma such as

     Also psychological disorder such as anxiety disorder, and mood disorder.
    Although, it is not known whether asthma causes psychological problems or psychological problems leads to asthma.


    • Webmd
    • Tikipedia
    • The new health and longevity


    The healthy natural ways to whitening teeth fast and free from plaque, stain, calculus and bad breath.

      It his no longer new thing when people talk about discoloration of teeth, bad breath and so on. But the fact is people don't realize the basic concepts on proper oral hygiene and the type of stain that may likely occur.
    All this stain that might likely occur in our mouth are divided into two part "extrinsic" and intrinsic.

    Extrinsic (on the outside of our white calcified teeth)

      This occur mostly to so many people and is associated with people with roughened teeth, irregular teeth, decreased mastication, sticky saliva, gingival pockets and other stagnation areas, and poor oral hygiene.
    Such as:
    • Calculus
    • Green stain
    • Black lines
    • Black or dark brown areas.
    Intrinsic (forms part of the structure)
    Such as:
    • Dental caries.
    • Blood borne pigments
    • Tetracycline stains
    • Non vital teeth.
      That is while it is very important for everybody to visit the dentist to know the state of your teeth health.
      However, Today we are going to discuss five method that can be used to ensure oral cleaning at all time.There are various methods as been used upon and some have scientific proof and some do not but they are popularly used to reduce or eliminate bacteria at low or no cost, such as the use of formulated toothpaste, home remedies, and herbal medicine.

    Home remedies

     1. The use of tooth pastes, saliva, tongue and water

      Oral hygiene: it is very important that everyone including dentist and patient should achieve a satisfactory state of oral cleanliness, and through this we can maintain maximum oral and dental health care .
    No plaque, stain, calculus or bad breath

    Fibrous foods
    All our meals should end with fibrous foods such as apples, carrots, nuts, or celery. These have a cleansing action by helping to remove food debris from the teeth. It also stimulate the periodontal tissues.

    According to medical research saliva consists of 90 percent of water, calcium carbonate, calcium phosphates, carbon dioxide, oxygen, enzymes, Maltese and mucin. 
    This helps in cleansing action. The constant flow washes and cleans the mouth and remove food debris, old epithelial cells and foreign particles.

    Tooth pastes:
    Daily use of a fluoride toothpaste is very good in decreasing or reducing the rate of decay, accumulation of plaque and calculus.
    For maximum effect toothpaste should be used day and night, and visit the dentist regularly on how to apply prophylactic paste at each visit at least twice a year as recommended by dental association.


    Use your tongue each time before and after meal to clean throughout your teeth. Start by using your tongue to clean the upper left last teeth to the upper left teeth. Use your tongue to scrub the neck to the edges of each teeth. Scrub with your tongue the grinding surface of your teeth surface. Do it in a backward and forward motion.
    Do it as long as you want or better still make it a good oral habit and not a bad oral habit.

     2. The use of walnuts

    The yellowish plaques on your teeth and the stain can be removed at home. Making your teeth healthy and whitish.
      In recent years, a lot of methods have been emphasis upon and tested at home and at the clinic to eliminate or reduce plaque, stain, calculus and even free from bacteria or dental caries (tooth decay).
      It is obvious that we consume lots of food that causes dental caries, plaque, stains, but there is a method that is simple and can save your money.
      If you ignore all this, it may otherwise develop to an inflammatory diseases if left untreated, such as periodontitis.

    An example of a good oral hygiene
    Source: under creative common license

    1. Buy a walnut and wash it thoroughly clean.
    2. Cook the walnut with the shell for about 20 minute.
    3. Once it become cool, strain the liquid inside a cup.
    4. and, brush with the liquid. 
      After brushing morning and night there must be positive changes. This procedure can be done as long as you see fit or as long as the effect disappears.
    walnut fluid is known to have anti bacterial properties, and therefore it is useful for those who suffer from bleeding of the gum.

    source: healthypage365

     3. The use of pumice powder

    Pumice is recommended as a cleaning and polishing aid to finish acrylic denture moulds. It is used in a slurry form to assist dental technicians obtain a smooth surface.
    It is also used as a mild abrasive in oral hygiene pastes, polishing of natural teeth during prophylaxis.
     The gritty texture of pumice makes it ideal for polishing smooth surfaces. The outer layer of your teeth, the enamel, is the hardest substance in the your body.
    When the surface of your enamel becomes scratched or pitted, plaque and bacteria have more places to hide, and a rougher surface to cling to.

      When your teeth are brush or polish with pumice. It removes the plaque and the bacteria and smooth the surface of your teeth.
    so, not only does brush with pumice remove bacteria and plaque, but it can also remove stains that occur when your teeth react with the foods and the beverages you drink.
    It also remove discoloration from smoking.
    This can also be done at home.


    1. Get pumice powder
    2. pour a little quantity inside a distilled water, mixed together and use it to brush your mouth.
    Second method

    1. Mixed pumice with water and not too soft or too solid, apply it to your teeth as if you are applying toothpaste (the pumice should be mixed with water it should look like paste).
    2. Apply to your teeth and leave it for about 20 minute.
    3. Rinse away then brush with your normal toothpaste.
    Third method
    1. Mixed pumice with glycerine or zinc oxide in alcohol  and not too soft or too solid, apply it to your teeth as if you are applying toothpaste (the pumice should be mixed with glycerine or zinc oxide it should look like paste).
    2. Apply to your teeth and leave it for about 20 minute.
    3. Rinse away then brush with your normal toothpaste.
    Or visit your dentist on how to polish your teeth and make it whiter or free from calculus and plaque.

    Source: www.techfil.co.uk/markets/dental-treatments/

     4. Use of chewing sticks

    The chewing sticks is the most popular local or traditional method used in the country. There are different types of chewing sticks used for different purposes.

    Apart from the primary role of tooth cleaning, most chewing sticks are used for medicinal purposes and as a gift to loved ones and for interior decoration.

    The chewing sticks is gotten from different herbs and plant twinges. They comes in various shapes and sizes. Some are cylindrical in shape while other are made into beautiful designs.
    The use of particular chewing stick should not be discouraged.

     It is also found that chewing sticks contain little or no amount of lead. The little amount of lead found does not have a serious effect to the body.

    We have different types of chewing sticks but the most popular and good ones are;

    • Massularia acumita (pako ijebu) :

     -  It clean the teeth and also whitens teeth.
      - The mineral analysis revealed that the percentage composition of sodium ion, potassium ion, calcium ion, and zinc ion, in Massularia acumita (pako ijebu) is higher than others. Hence, it is most commonly used in the society for teeth cleaning and removing stains, plaque.

    The scientific proof can be found in U.S National library of medicine
    And Africans journal online 

    • Orin Ata (zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides): 

     - It cleans teeth. also it might helps to arrest sickle cell anemia.

    • Orin ayan (Distemonanthus benthamianus)
    It whiten teeth and remove dental plaque and food deposit
    • pseudocedrela kotschyl (Emigbegiri)

    - It cleans teeth. 
    - And also it is capable of curing gum diseases and other mouth related diseases.

    The scientific proof can be found in Africans journal online here


    1. Firstly, wash chewing stick clean thoroughly.
    2. Chew ones end to a soft tuft.
    3. Start with upper left last tooth (third molar) to the upper right last tooth (third molar).
    4. Scrub teeth from the neck (cervical margin) to the edges (incisal or occlusal margins) on each tooth, a maximum of five strokes is needed to achieve reasonable massage of the gum and thoroughly cleaning of the tooth.
    5. Scrub the teeth grinding surface (occlusal) backward and forward be in a sawing motion.
    6. Repeat the same procedure on the lower jaw.
    7. Scrubbing upward from the lower left last tooth to the lower right last tooth.
    8. Gently, massage the gum carefully to avoid laceration.
    9. Also, clean out the tongue and mucosa linings.
    10. Finally rinse out the mouth with water and the same time clean out the chewing stick and keep.
    The use of chewing stick should not be discouraged rather the correct method of usage should be taught to anyone who insist on continue usage of a chewing sticks. The use of toothbrush may be recommended to serve as a supplement.
    Me and my mother used chewing stick everyday and use toothbrush as a supplement. I recommend using it.

     5. The use of local method of teeth cleaning

     Before the introduction of tooth brush into our society, so many local methods have been used in attempt to make the mouth clean.
    Most of these traditional methods are still in use, mostly people in the rural areas and people that have little or no knowledge about oral hygiene instructions
    It is unfortunate that some of these local methods are harmful and detrimental.
    These are some of the traditional or local method used by people:
    • Charcoal
    • Ashes
    • Soap
    • Finger
    • Salt
    • Chewing sticks.
    Although, salt and bicarbonate of soda may be used as paste to brush. And are effective substitutes and very cheap.

      Some of this local method is not good because they do not achieve the objectives of massaging the gum and effective cleaning of every surface of the teeth and reduce the accumulation of deposit such as plaque, stains, material alba among others.

      Some stain teeth and gum such as charcoal and ashes, and some are irritating to the gum such as soap. The use of finger we not clean the mouth thoroughly.
      When chewing sticks are used correctly it will help to massage the gum and clean every surface of the gum.

    If you know a better way to make your teeth healthy, white, and free from bacteria or you want to add any information to this article. Tell us about it by commenting.

    Share and like this article!


    what are the different types of worms diseases, causes treatment and how is it contracted?

      According to medical research there are varieties of worms diseases that can be found in the body. This worms varies by sizes, Symptoms, treatement, countries to countries, and mode of contracting them.
    This worms are harmful to the body if left untreated. 

    Types of worms?

    • Flukes (trematodes)
    • Tapeworms
    • Strongyloides stercoralis
    • Pin-worm, Thread-worm (enterobius vermicularies)
    • Hook-worm (Ankylostoma duodenale and necator americanus)
    • Trichina worms (Trichinella spiralis)
    • Round-worm (ascaris lumbricoides)
    • Guinea worm, serpent-worm,dragon-worm

    Where are this worms found or located in the body system?

    • Flukes
      This worm have varieties but similar characteristics. They all have the same size in length and causing the same general complaints.
    They are found in Africa (Congo and north Africa), India, bengal and assam, British guiana. The adult worms is found in a man. It is located at the liver, bladder and lining of the intestine.
    • Tapeworms
    This types of worm are found all over the world.
    • Strongyloides stercoralis
     This worm are found throughout the world but it can be found mainly in Brazil, the far East and Africa.
    This worms gain entrance through the skin  and found in the blood stream, lungs, trachea and intestines.
    • Pin-worm, Thread-worm (enterobius vermicularies)
      This worms is found in all part of the world. The male have different size and female have is own size too. It usually affect children and it is found in the intestine, appendix and large bowel.
    An example of diseases caused by worms

    For more information read:

    • Hook-worm (Ankylostoma duodenale and necator americanus)

      The hook -worm is found in all tropical and subtropical countries. The female is larger than the male.
    This are found in the blood stream, lungs, trachea and intestines and they leave in the blood. They can penetrate through the skin.
    • Trichina worms (Trichinella spiralis)
    As the name implies they are found in China, Europe, Africa, Syria and united states of America. This is the smallest of the round-worms. The male is smaller in diameter than female. It is found in the small intestine and blood stream
    • Round-worm (ascaris lumbricoides)
    This are found all over the world. It so found in the temperate zone as well as in the tropical zone. The round-worm is the largest of all worms that infect the human body . The male measure about 15 to 25 cm, and the female about 25 to 40 cm in length. It is round and the body is very firm. It is found in the small intestine and go down through the blood stream and to the liver. Then they make their way down to the bronchi to the trachea and up to the troat.
    • Guinea worm, serpent-worm,dragon-worm
      They are found in India, Burma, Arabia, Persia, Africa; west indies and south America.
    This are found in the intestinal wall and find their way to the back of the abdomen behind the peritoneum.
    The guinea worm is a very thin creature. The adult male measures 30mm in length and is 4mm thick. The female is from 6cm to 1 cm long and 1.5 to 1.7 mm thick.

    How is worms diseases contracted?

    • Flukes
      The eggs are passed in the stool and urine; and when they find their way into the pools of water or community water supply, they are taken by snails where they now develop in the body of the snail. Some develop in the body of the fish. A dorm is passed into the water and infects anyone who wades or swims in the pond or water.

    • Tapeworms
      They are contracted by eating poorly cooked meat (The main ones are dwarf, beef, pork and fish). Salting, pickling or smoking this beef or fish will not kill these organisms. Meat must be thoroughly cooked.
      The animal also contract Tapeworms infections by grazing on soil contaminated by human stools that have tapeworm. Fish are infected by living in a contaminated water that have tapeworm. It can also be contracted directly by drinking water contaminated with the eggs of the worms. 

    • Strongyloides stercoralis
      It is contracted and develope in the moist soil that have been contaminated by the stool of a man that has these. They enter through the skin on the bottom of bare feet and get into the blood stream.

    • Pin-worm, Thread-worm (enterobius vermicularies)
      This worm are contracted through an infected children they spread the eggs of the worms to their playmate or colleagues. From his nails the eggs get on his food and go into the stomach, where they now develop.

    • Hook-worm (Ankylostoma duodenale and necator americanus)
      The eggs are passed through the stool and if they fall on warm soil, they pass through various stages  of development until they become active larvae. In this stage they are able to penetrate the skin of a bare footed person.

    • Trichina worms (Trichinella spiralis)
      The worm are contracted through animal. The pig, dog, rat, and man are the real host. If infected pork is eaten by man. Their journey terminates in the muscles of the man or animal. And they do not develop into adults unless they are eaten by another man, pig or rat.
    • Round-worm (ascaris lumbricoides)
    The eggs are passed in the stool and contaminate the ground where the stool is passed. When vegetables is fertilized with human excreta, the vegetable is infected which may be ingested with the vegetables if it is not thoroughly cleaned before being eaten.
    • Guinea worm, serpent-worm,dragon-worm
      The water flea lives in the pools of water in some tropics area. It eats the embryos of the Guinea worm previously present in the water . These embryos then undergo certain development within the body of the water flea. A person drinking the water that is infected with this fleas, containing the guinea worms. The flea will die in the victims stomach and freeing the guinea worm after digest in the stomach of the victims.

    What are Treatment and Symptoms of Worms Diseases

    Disclaimer: the drug mentioned in this article are for informational purposes only and the drugs may have been outdated or not in use anymore. If at all you want a drug for worms, consult your doctor or pharmacist.

    • Flukes
    Symptoms: Blood in the urine may occur (Hamaturia) this is usually painless, also coughing of blood (haemoptysis), diarrhea, enlarged liver and spleen.
    Treatment: Using of tetrachlorethylene capsules is very effective or, hexylresorcinol tablets, emetine.
    • Tapeworms
    Treatment: Using Quinacrine is very effective. How to use this is that two tablets are given at ten minutes interval until ten are given. A little sodium bicarbonate can also be given to subdue any tendency to vomit. Two hours later you should also give 30 grams of sodium sulphate. The patient we purge and the worm we pass out with the stool. If the patient did not purge soap-suds enema should be given. Pls note until the worm pass out with the stool the patient wI'll not recover quickly.
    • Strongyloides stercoralis
    Symptoms: When the worm enter the skin, the organism causes itching. It also cause lungs hemorrhage. Diarrhea may occurs.
    Treatment: The most effective drugsbis dithiazanine, but it may cause vomiting. Antihistamines are also essential to minimize reactions but should be given under the supervision of a qualified doctor.
    • Pin-worm, Thread-worm (enterobius vermicularies)
    Symptoms: itching is the main symptoms.
    Treatment: Hexylresorcinol tablets is the most popular drugs given.
    • Hook-worm (Ankylostoma duodenale and necator americanus)
    Symptoms:  it causes itching too. It is commonly called ground itch. Sometimes it disappear without treatment within the very few days .
    Treatment: piperazine citrate. These medicines are the safest to use . Several other drugs may also be used with care. The dosage will be found printed on the container.
    • Trichina worms (Trichinella spiralis)
     Symptoms: The patient may suffers distress in the intestines. Also it may cause muscle pain, severe toxicity and even death.
    Treatment: It is very difficult to treat the worms, for they become embedded in the wall of the intestine. The usual medications for worms should be used. It should be treated early so that the worm we die after using the drug. However, there is no known successfull treatment for the larvae after they leave the intestines and enter the muscle.
    • Round-worm (ascaris lumbricoides)
    Symptoms: When the worms are in the lungs, particular if they are in great numbers, they may produce symptoms like pneumonia.
    They may give off toxins that may give rise to fever . Another important symptoms is vomiting without any physical causes. 
    However, allergic like itching, conjunctivitis and bronchitis may be seen.
    Treatment: The best drug is by given piperazine. This drugs varies by size, so therefore it is recommended to follow the instructions printed on the package unless your doctor state otherwise.
    • Guinea worm, serpent-worm,dragon-worm
    Symptoms: A toxic effect is produced from the fluids given off by the female at the time of discharges the embryos. Usually there is a blister formed and secondary infections result from her penetrating the skin.
    Treatment: I can find specific treatment for this worms. Hetrazan may be used in case of one is suspicious of drinking contaminated water. It will destroy the worms as long as they are in the blood stream. Prevention Is the best guarantee against guinea worms.
    Prevention: Make sure of pure drinking water. Also, Always boil water before using it for drinking purposes.


    How to reduce pain, headache, weakness and discomfort that arises by the day.

    1.  Exercise

      It is very obvious that a lot of people wake up with so much discomfort such as; headache, pain, dizziness, weakness and so much stress by the day. But all this discomfort can be reduced and prevented (In the absence of no systemic conditions that might trigger the action).
      The question you need to ask yourself are:
    • Are my taking proper care of myself?
    • Despite my wealth I still feel pain and discomfort why?
    • Am I taking proper balance diet?
    • Am I keeping my body fit, to be free from this so much discomfort that arises by the day?
      However, daily exercise is another aspect that tend to develops your muscles and also develope your strength. Daily exercise not only tend to strengthen the muscle and the bone but also allow proper flow of blood to circulate through the process. Some of the pain you have daily might be as a result of not getting fit and energetic (such as joint pain).
    Exercise give your body a proper shape and make you energetic throughout the day (doing daily exercise does not mean you are free from disease, there might be some disease contributing to your discomfort).

    How can you achieved a better exercise?

      Exercise can be achieved if only you are 'self motivated' .
    The question is:
    • Am I ready for this?
    • Are you self-esteem (you have to respect others opinion that have gone through the process to lead you to your own achievement too).
    • Are you ready to do exercise dialy to be physically fit at all time?
    • Even if you have achieved your purpose, will you still continue at all costs?
    This are the question you need to ask yourself before you can achieve your purpose.
    Discomfort and pain

    What you should not do.

    • You should not do exercise simply because they are doing it.
    • You should not do exercise simply because you have the requirement.
    What you should do.

    • You should do exercise simply because you wanted it at all costs 
    • You should do exercise simply because you have make it an habit and always make you feel better after doing it
    Other things you might consider doing at all time to yield a better results
    • Don't eat too much.
    • Aviod eating at night at least some hours before going to sleep at night.
    • Eating heavy food late  at night might result in excess fat and heart related issues because the heart keep pumping blood when your mind suppose to be at rest. This might result to discomfort when you wake up the next morning such as slightly headache and soon.
    • Drink clean water or fresh juice at all time when the body need it.
    • Always empty your bladder in time.
    • Be focus and be self determined.
      And I bet it with you there must be a positive change (you will thank me later).
      You can do exercise two times daily to achieve better results, this not only make you feel better but also make you physically fit and look healthy.

      2.  Your overall health hygiene.

      Good hygiene gives you good health and maximum protection and free from certain disease or illness that might destroy the body and weak the immune system. Although, immunity helps to fight certain diseases but it might get weak or low to the extend that it won't be able to resist the disease.
    The best way to boost our immune system and make it stronger again is to maintain good hygiene and better balance diet. Good hygiene not limited to some aspect in the body but involve the overall well being of the body as a whole (oral hygiene, food hygiene, cloth and environmental health ).

    Good hygiene include but not limited to:

    Oral hygiene

      This are the cleaning aids that can be used by individual or dentist to achieve good hygiene.

    General hygiene

    • The use of antiseptic soap.
    • Bath regular day and night.
    • Use of good antiseptic in the bathroom.
    • Making the environment clean a well ventilated area.
    • Daily wash of your clothes with antiseptic soap
    Instruction for oral hygiene method

      1. By patient

    • Avoid sticky refined carbohydrates, especially between meals.
    • Eat cleaning, fibrous foods at the end of each meal.
    • Toothbrushing.
    • Flossing.
    • Muscular activity.
    • Bubble and swallow
    • Regular vist to the dentist at least twice a year.
      2.  By dentist

    •  Elimination of decay and stagnation areas by scaling and polishing, conservation, prosthetics, orthodontics, and fissures sealants
    • Giving health talk to the public.
    • Or advice on oral hygiene.

    This are the cleaning aid to achieve better cleaning of the mouth and the body and free from germs. ( mouth is a gateway to the body)

    Read also: What you can do: observing good oral hygiene

      3. water 

      Water is very essential to the body like food which is also good for the body. Water can affect your overall health. Lack of water in the body could destroy the body and may result to sudden collapse.
    Taking more water is much more better, drinking water before food and last thing at night help calm the body.
    However, too much of water is bad, in fact too much of food and water is bad. You have to balance it. You can help yourself by drawing out a time table for your dialy need or you can use Google sheets,  Google calendar and much more.
    This we help you a lot to perfect your everyday life.

    Top 6 benefit of water

    • It helps in digestion of food.
    • It help the whole body to circulate properly.
    • It reduces stress and calm your body down.
    • It helps to stabilize your body temperature .
    • It helps you to have a good sound sleep.
    • Water can be use as a means of fluoridation to reduce or prevent decay. 
      Water as so many advantages that can helps the body depending on how you use them. Sometimes during the day it may be a glass of cold water that we help calm you down.

      4. Body massage

      Having a body massage is another way you get rid of stress, pain and sore muscles. 

    The room must be well ventilated and comfortable
    Using a massage oil we help your body too.
    • Massage usually begin with the feet and legs
    • Move to the upper back or waist.
    • Move to the neck and shoulders, then the hands and arms.
    • Finish with the head.

    Benefit of massage

    • Relief anxiety.
    • Induces a state of relaxation.
    • Provides sounds sleep.
    • Relief stress and tension.
    • Improves circulation.
    • Reduce pain.
    • Improves eyesight.
    • Improve digestion.
    • Restore youth and vitality.
    • It nourish the hair follicle.
    • Rejuvenates the whole body.
    There is so much more benefit that massage can offer your body you need to try this if you have not.

      If you know a better way of eliminate discomfort and pain or yout want to add any information to this article. Tell us about it by commenting.

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      It his obvious that a lot of womens and girls does not understand the  basic structure and function of their body.
    It is very important that you understand the anatomy and physiology (anatomy simply means structure of our body and physiology means the function of this structure) of your body.
       On of this structure is your "overies" and the "uterus". Which is the important sexual organs of the female. These ovaries are two small,  round bodies. They are located in the lower part of the abdomen. The ovaries produce the Ova. The ova are so small to the extent that if one hundred and twenty five of them were placed side by side, they would barely cover a space an inch wide.

      This is attached to the uterus on each side are two tubes called oviducts or fallopian tubes. Four or five inches in length, they extend in a curved position toward the ovaries, the outer end being unattached to anything. The ovum released from the ovary, enters the outer end of one of these oviducts and passes along through it to the uterus.

      The uterus of a virgin is about two and three quarter inches long by one and three quarter inches wide. The lower end of it projects down into the vagina.

      The external opening of the vagina is almost closed by a membrane, "the hymen" . The hymen is usually ruptured at the time of the first sexual intercourse. In rare cases, a girl is born with the hymen entirely closed. In such cases mucus will connect within the vagina and causes pain and swelling. In this case the girl that is affected should be taken to physician or obstetrics and gynecologist nursing for further treatment.

    What are the age of puberty and menstruation in girls?

      When a girl reaches the age of puberty which is usually from age nine to fifteen years old. At this time the girl notice some changes such as hair begins to grow in her arm pits (axilla), and about the pubis; the breasts begin to grow, the whole body takes on a more rapid growth, and the girl begins to menstruate (all this signs we make her fit to bear a child).

      Menstruation occurs usually every twenty eight days and lasts ordinary for five days. (In some rare cases it can last for six days have seen a girl that menstrate for six days). At the time of the girls menstruation there is a partial sloughing or throwing off of the lining of the uterus.
    The menstrual discharge contains both blood and mucus. Menstruation usually ceases about the forty to fifth year of life. After it ceases, a woman can not bear a child.

      When a girl begin to menstruate, a girl can become impregnated and bear a child, this does not mean that this should happen. Every girl is entitled to a normal childhood and youth, she should not be deprived of that. Every girl should be given time to develop physically and mentally before taking on the burdens of motherhood. I think the best age for a young woman to marry should be between eighteen and twenty three.

      However, There are various abnormal conditions that causes discomfort in menstruation such as (painful menstruation, absence of menstruation profuse menstruation and leucorrhoea menstruation) 

      The average girl begins to menstruate at about age twelve, but in some, it may begin as early as nine years or may have delay till age fifteen.

      There are conditions that might causes absence of menstruation (amenorrhea):

    • A girl suffering from tuberculosis.
    • Failure to menstruate may be due to an underdeveloped condition of the uterus and ovaries
    • Or to a closed condition of the vagina.
    • Also a change of climate may ceased the menstruation when experienced by the girl.
    • Pregnancy.
    • Other diseases that my cease it are typhoid fever or cold.

    What are the treatment of absence of menstruation?

      Since the causes of failure of menstruate varied, the treatment may be determined by your physician or the treatment in every instance is to remove the cause if possible. 
    However, in the case of a married woman it should be remembered that failure to menstruate might be that the woman his pregnant.

    The following treatment will be found useful in inducing menstruation:

    • If the girl is poorly nourished she should be given more and better food (balance diet).
    • The girl should not engage herself into too much of hard work.
    • In this case daily exercise is required. Preferably out of doors.
    • Plenty of rest is also required at least eight to nine hours of sleep every night is essential.
      Normally there may be some discomfort at the time of menstruation; but if there is pain, it is due to some abnormal condition.
    Dysmenorrhoea (painful menstruation is the most common condition that do occur to girls.

     Profuse menstruation is a problem that might occur, and it is often experience after giving birth. It is possible that a small amount of after birth was left in the uterus. This usually causes considerable post part bleeding and if there is large amount the patient must undergo surgery and the uterus must be curreted.

      Profuse menstrual flow is often accompanied with pain.

    • In painful menstruation the pain may be in the back or in the side. 
    • Sometimes there may be feeling of pressure in the lower abdomen; or there may be sharp pains in the region of the uterus. These pain are not constant, but there may be on/off or stopping and starting.
      Painful mestruation may be a functional condition; that is, one that is not caused by a physical defect. It, is like molimen, this may be due to malfunctioning of the glands.
       Premenstrual nervous and circulatory disturbance is a very common complaint of women. 

    What are the symptoms of molimen?

    Symptoms may vary from comparatively mild to severe. 
    • During the premature period many women become very tense and do not say things to their husbands and children they become very quiet. It is often said that many crime committed by women are done during this period of premature tension.
    • This condition occur along with this nervousness and irritability the woman breasts become sore.
    • The abdomen become bloated.
    A careful study of  the problem, made at the mayo clinic (U.S.A) revealed that the cause of this apparent flatulence was not an abnormal amount of gas in the intestines. The investigation, based on actual X-ray pictures, led to the conclusion that the bloating was due to the congestion of the blood vessels of the pelvis and the swelling of the tissues in the abdomen. It is a good for all women to know this fact, for a better understanding of it relieves mind. 
       There are physical conditions that might cause painful menstruation, but this should be determined by a gynecologist. It may be that the opening of the cervix is too small, so that great pressure is required to expel the blood. In this case the doctor can do a dilatation of the cervix to offer relief.

      Many women notice they had severe pains during their menstrual periods until they had giving birth to their first baby, but after their first baby they no longer have pain.
    This is because the birth of the baby dilated the cervix. There are other ways of getting relief from menstrual pains, such as by the use of endocrine substances. These are expensive, complicated and should be administered by the doctor.

      However, end of menstrual periods (menopause) may occur at the age of 45 or thereabouts. It as symptoms similar to molimen. The difference between these is that, menopause continue after day and not just preceding periods or time like molimen.

    What are the treatment of menopause?

    • By giving  male and female sex hormones might relief and eventually become her normal self again.
    • Womens should take plenty of rest and have less responsibility.
    • Taken of balance diet and fruits.
    • Pleasant surrounding and a reasonable amount of fresh air and sunshine will do so much good than taken much medication.

    Other treatment guide that might prevent discomfort and pain during menstrual period are:

    Sex hygiene:
      It is very important to make your female organ clean at all time. These eliminate itching, burning, and sores at the opening of the vagina are often due to lack of cleanliness. Care should be taken to bathe the creases between the folds of the labia.
      Itching, rediness and swelling around the mouth of the vagina may be caused by masturbation, gonorrhea, leucorrhoea, abnormal urine or by the use of coarse paper or dirty cloths for pads at the time of menstruation.

    For more information read: Bleeding without regard to periods (metrorrhagia)

    • Source


    Help to stop discomfort and pain during menstrual period.

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      It his very essential for all dental team that is studying dental health such as (dentist, dental nurse,dental therapy and technology) to have a better knowledge on anatomy and physiology. This article we make us understand how anatomy and physiology are related to the treatment of patients in dental and oral surgery department in dentistry.

                           Dental instruments and their uses

                           4 Guide for dentist
    First of all we must know the,

    Basic knowledge of the skull

      The skull is the bony skeleton of the head and jaws (the dentist deals with the head and neck).
    The skull consists of two parts which are, like a box just like a cranium containing and protecting the brain, and facial skeleton. We can also see An added protection of the brain by its surrounding cerebral fluid. The skull rests upon the upper end of the vertebral column.

    A diagram showing the skull with labels
      To obtain a clear picture of the position of the bones, as a student then, we are advised to look at a skull for study purposes and to learn more about the basic knowledge of anatomy and physiology. We also have a skull at the dental clinic for study purposes and references (the dentist also make use of them too).

      We are also thought that 

    The skull consists of 8 cranium bones and the face consists of 14 bones which are:

    Cranium bones
    • 1 frontal bone forms the forehead.
    • 2 parietal bones form the side of the skull.
    • 2 temporal bones contain the ears
    • 1 occipital bone form base of skull.
    • 1 spheniod bone form the floor of the cranium.
    • 1 ethmoid bone  also form the floor of the cranium.
    The face consists of 14 bones
    • 2 lacrymal bones these form the nose.
    • 2 nasal bones these form the nose.
    • 2 turbinate bones these form the bone.
    • 1 vomer bone these also form the bone.
    • 1 mandible.
    • 2 maxillary bones.
    • 2 Palatine bones.
    • 2 zygomatic bones.
    We also confirm that the four maxillary and zygomatic bones form the upper jaw, in close association with the palatine bones.

    The Dentist are most concerned on the Maxillary bones

    This is the main bones of the facial skeleton (which the dentist should be concerned about or study about) you can't do without the maxillary bones when you are in oral surgery. The bones have one for each side.
    They meet in the midline of the face, below the nose, and together form the upper jaw. Each maxilla consists of a body and four processes; alveolar, palatine, frontal, and zygomatic.
    The body has four surfaces and a large central cavity:
    1. The Anterior
      It forms part of the lower margin of the orbit, beneath which is the infra-orbital foramen. This is also the exit for the infra-orbital nerves and vessels.
    • Medially it forms the side of the front opening of the nose.
    • Below, it conttinue with the alveolar process.
    • Leterally continue in the zygomatic process.
    Some muscles of facial expression are attached to this surface.it is separated from the posterior surface by the zygomatic process.
      2. The posterior surface: forms the anterior wall of             the infratemporal fossa, where branches of the               maxillary nerve and vessels enter the maxilla via           dental canals.
      3. The superior surface: forms the part of the floor of         the orbit
      4. The medial surface: forms the wall of the nose.

      The dentist and dental nurse must know the bones in contact with the maxilla and muscles attached to the maxillary bone which is the main course of our dicipline. Which are:
    Bones in contact with the maxilla
    • Maxilla of the opposite side.
    • Ethmoid.
    • Frontal.
    • Inferior concha and vomer.
    • Lacrimal.
    • Mandible.
    • Nasal.
    • Palatine.
    Muscles attached to the maxillary bone
    • Buccinator.
    • Compressor nares.
    • Dilator nares.
    • Inferior oblique of eye and inferior rectus.
    • Levator anguli Oris.
    • Levator labii superioris.
    • Levator labii superioris alequae nasi.
    • Masseter.
    • Medial pterygoid.
    • Orbicularis oculi.
    • Orbicularis Oris.
    • Zygomaticus.
    The madible is another aspect in dentistry that must be concerned about.

    The Mandible

    The mandible bone united in the midline. Each consists of a horizontal horseshoe shaped body and a laterally placed vertical ramus.
      On top, the teeth lie in sockets within the alveolar process. This is located below the roots of the premolar teeth and the mental foramen transmits the mental nerve and vessels through the outer surface. Passing back and slightly upwards from this foramen is where the external oblique line, which becomes continuous with the anterior border of the ramus. Above the line lie the tooth roots. Below is the inferior dental canal.

       These is while is extremely important for the dentist to study the general anatomy and physiology aspect of the mandible and the maxilla and know the types of injections given:
    • Regional blocks: inferior dental, mental, infra-orbital, posterior superior dental, greater palatine, sphenopalatine.
    • Infiltration.
    • Papillary.
    • Intra-osseous.

    What are the muscles that are attached to the mandible?

    • Anterior belly of the digastric.
    • Buccinator.
    • Depressor labii inferioris.
    • Depressor anguli Oris.
    • Genioglossus.
    • Geniohyoid.
    • Lateral pterygoid.
    • Masseter.
    • Medial pterygoid.
    • Mentalis.
    • Mylohyoid.
    • Orbicularis Oris.
    • Platysma.
    • Superior constrictor of pharynx.
    • Temporalis.
    The mandible (which is the lower jaw) is the only mobile bone in the skull
    One of the Main Function of madible(lower jaw)
    • It articulates with the temporal bone on each side of the cranium by means of a temporomandibular joint, to allow the movements of mastication (chewing). All other bones are joined together by normal sutures, which build the skull.

    What are the movement of mandible?

    1. Opening
    2. Closure
    3. Protrusion
    4. Retrusion
    5. Sideways movements
    6. Chewing:anterior,posterior,and lateral movement.
    This is the aspect  the dentist must know to better understand the general knowledge of anatomy and to better understand dentistry. If there is any aspect have omitted or remove that you want to add further knowledge or share your ideas let us know by commenting.


    • Anatomy and physiology by Ross and willson

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