11/26/16

   Cholera: Causes, Symptoms, First aid, Treatment, vaccines, And Rules For Avoiding Cholera

Diagram showing tse-tse fly which causes cholera
   TEN RULES FOR AVOIDING   CHOLERA.

1. Be inoculated against the disease every six months.
2. Be absolutely certain that all water used for drinking purposes or for cleaning the teeth and mouth, has been boiled, filtered or chlorinated.
3. Eat no foods except those that are cooked and served steaming hot.
4. Melons,cucumber and raw fruits must not be eaten unless carefully washed and cleaned.
5. Any foodstuff bought on the streets is dangerous and must not be eaten unless it can first be boiled, cooked,washed or peeled, as the case may be.
6. Do not touch articles such as towels, handkerchiefs, bed clothing, bowls or spoons that have been used by a cholera patient unless the article have been washed in boiling water after being taken from the sick room.
7. Flies, cockroaches and ants carry cholera germs. Food should be kept covered so that these pests cannot get to it. Special care should be taken to keep food covered so that no flies can sit on it.
8. Wash the hands thoroughly with soap and water before handing food or drink.
9. Avoid if possible close contact with those who live in families or communities where cholera is epidemic.
10. When traveling carry your own drinking cup, wash pan, towels, etc.Use of the cups and pans provided in hotels or on trains is risky. 

READ ALSO: VENEREAL INFECTIONS.

Causes :

   However,cholera is caused by a definite bacterium which is spread in much the same way as typhoid.  Scrupulous sanitation is necessary and great care must be exercised to boil all water, especially during an epidemic . Flies transmit the disease and every effort must be made to keep flies away from food and babies or infants.

Symptoms :

    1. After one to three days after esposure to the disease the patient begins to feel slightly I'll and a little diarrhea begins. In some cases it does not amount to much more than that, And for some people are not as susceptible to the disease as others do.
    2. Usually the onset is sudden.
    3.  Profuse watery stools pour forth, sometimes with such force that the patient cannot control them.
    4. Vomiting maybe severe and often projectile,which means it forcefully shoots out of the mouth. With the loss of fluid from vomiting and diarrhea, the patient becomes dehydrated very soon.
    5.  There is marked loss of electrolytes in the blood; that is,the essential light elements like sodium and potassium.                 6. Prostration and mental dullness follow; the eyes become sunken.
    7. The blood pressure drops.
    8. The urine fails and the temperature becomes subnormal.

Treatment :

Unfortunately in some cases antibiotics may not be of much help in the disease. They actually render the stool free from the bacteria but do not alter the course of the disease.
   1. The main treatment is to restore the great loss of fluids and the electrolytes, sodium and potassium, to prevent dehydration of the system.
  2. If the patient can take fluids by mouth he should be given a quart of water every three hours.
  3. Also it should be given salt and also potassium chloride during the day.
  4. For the relief of pain it is necessary to use analgesic.
  5. If the patient can not take fluid by mouth , it should be administered through intravenous through the help of nurse or doctor.
  6. The body temperature must not go down it should be monitor closely.
Remember to always keep the body fluids and electrolyte until the patient get well.

Vaccines :

 However, in some area where cholera is common prophylaxis  vaccines maybe given every six months .
So the important thing is to avoid exposure.  Great care should be taken at all time expecially during epidemics and to avoid contaminated water and food.

First aid for the patient having cholera :

  1. At first, thing to be done in case of cholera  is to  take the patient to an isolation hospital, if there is one close to you. In case if there is none, the patient should be placed in a room that is well ventilated and clean.  If possible or necessary the windows and doors  should be cover with a treated mosquito net.
   2. One person with cholera may infect another person or more. If the bowel discharges should be collected in a vessel containing antiseptic  and left to stand for an hour before being thrown out. Never throw the faeces in a stream or near well.       3. All cholera stools should be buried.
  4.  One should be careful and make sure no faeces of the patient fall  inside the  food or water.
   5. Any utensil used by the patient should be washed and boiled. Any thing that the patient touches should be disinfect.
   6.  After the patient recovery the room in which the patient is staying should be disinfected.
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