12/14/16

Human Eye and Ear


   THE EYE IS A WONDERFUL ORGAN.

It makes a picture of everything it sees, and the nerves from the eye tell the brain about these pictures. The eyes are very easily injured, and for this reason they are well protected by their location in two cavities in the front of the skull,and by the eyelids, eyelashes and eyebrows.


Hygiene of the Eye 


    The eyes of the infant should be well cared for. when the infant is asleep, use a piece of mosquito net to cover it so that flies cannot alight on the eyes and infect them. The schoolroom where the children study should be well 
lighted. The children should be provided with seats low enough so that their feet will rest on the floor ;and the desk or table should be low, so that when the book is lying on the table and the child is sitting erect, the print will be a foot from the eyes. 
The child should be provided with study books that have large, clear type. After a child has had measles, scarlet fever or smallpox, he should not be allowed to go to school till fully recovered, because these diseases weaken the eyes, as well as 
the rest of the body. 
      In order to protect the eyes from injury and disease, it necessary, in addition to what has already been mentioned, to give heed to the following :
      1. Never read or do any close work such as embroidery in a poorly lighted place.

        2. when reading, do not sit facing the light ; it : is better 

ANATOMY OF THE Eye


to sit so that the light will shine on the book from behind, over the shoulder.
     3. When reading or doing any work that requires close attention, it is well to rest the eyes occasionally, either by closing them for a few seconds, or else by looking out of the window at the distant sky, or the green trees, or the grass for a
few minutes.
     4. When a particle of dust or any foreign object gets into the eye, do not rub the eye, but remove the substance by washing the eye with normal saline. If there is no normal saline at hand, clean boiled water may be used.
      5. Avoid using towels, soap, washpans or face cloths that are being used by other people in public places. Those who have used these articles may have had "sore eyes," and by using them you may contract some eye disease.
      6. Smoke is very injurious to the eyes. If the stove where the food is being prepared is not fitted with a flue, the house becomes filled with the irritating smoke. When this is repeated three times
a day, day after day, it injures the eyes of every member of the family .At a very small cost flues can be built that will conduct the smoke out of the room and prevent this discomfort and injury.

Hygiene of the Ear

     By examining a detailed picture of the
ear, it will be seen that the ear is divided into three parts. The part that we see on the outside of the head simply forms a funnel like arrangement to pass the sound on into the middle and internal ear. The middle ear is connected with the throat by a
small tube (Eustachian tube). When one has a cold, and there is mucus in the nose and throat, the lining of the throat and of the Eustachian tube becomes swollen and this clogs the tube.
This is one of the causes of temporary deafness.
     When the Eustachian tube becomes infected, the middle also becomes infected. When pus is formed and oils the middle ear, it causes the ear to ache. So much pus may be formed that it presses on the ear-drum (tympanic membrane) and tears an opening in it. Then the pus can be seen coming out of the ear.
      The following are the important points to be observed in the care of the ear:
       1. The wax in the ear serves an important purpose. This wax is very bitter, and on account of this no insect will enter the ear unless it is one that accidentally flies in. This wax should not be scraped or dug out. If the ear-wax should become hardened and interfere with the hearing, then remove it . The hairs that grow in the ear also serve the useful purpose of keeping out insects and dust. Do not allow the barber to remove these hairs.
       2. If a small insect gets into the ear, the best way to get rid of it is to drop into the ear a few drops of warm sesame oil or some other clean sweet oil.This will cause the insect to come out or will kill it and then one can remove it by syringing with warm water.
       3. Avoid violent blowing of the nose ; this may cause the germs in the nose and throat to be forced through the Eustachian tube into the middle ear, and cause deafness.
      4. Never strike a child on the ears. By so doing one may injure the ear and cause deafness.

    READ ALSO: THE NERVOUS SYSTEM.
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