Injections Antibiotics and Other Medicine
SULPHA TABLETS ARE MADE from a variety of chemical compounds, all of them similar in nature. There has been much improvement since the original sulphanilamide and sulphathiazole appeared. It is no longer necessary for patients to worry about food or liquids while usingthe new preparations. It is to be noted, however, that sulphas are strong drugs and cut down the white blood cell count and give the patient a sense of weakness . For this reason they should be administered only under circumstances when definitelyindicated, specifically when there is infection somewhere in the body.it is also to be noted that when once treatment by antibiotics is started it should be continiied for three Or four days to ensure complete elimination of the infection,
The average dose for an adult is one or two tablets four times a day. For children 1/4 to 1/2 tablet, according to weight
of the patient.
Sulphadiazine is used to prevent reinfection with rheumatic fever. If one tablet a day is taken the possibility of recurrence is very greatly reduced. This medication should be continued for several years. After recovery from the original attack sulphadiazine is used as a prophylactic (preventative ) in some cases when in the doctor's opinion it is indicated it is not recommended for colds, however.
These are often referred to as the"mycin"drugs, for most of them end in similar sounding syllables. They are called
"broad spectrum"drugs because they are eftective against a larger variety of bacteria. They are more expensive but on the whole less toxic than sulpha drugs. Exception to this is chloramphenicol marketed under various names but best known by the
original trade name of chloromycetin. This drug has been thought to interfere with the formation of blood but whether this
is true or not is still open to question. Used in average amounts and for four to six days, it practically never causes complications. It is, however, specific for typhoid fever and must be given for a continuous period of several weeks to prevent relapse.
Blood counts should be done periodically during such long periods of administration.
The average dose is 250 mg. Four times daily. For children 50 to 100 mg. will be efective.
In general, caution is advised against using ointments containing sulpha, penicillin or the broad spectrum antibiotics. The reason for this is the possibility of a patient's becoming sensitive to these drugs, with the result that in case of some later serious infection it will become dangerous for him to use them.
One antibiotic which is not administered by mouth or by injection is called bacitracin. It is available in ointment form
both for general use and for specific treatment of eye ailments. It is best to use this for the usual dressings at home.
Eye Drops and Ointments
Infections of the eye are not uncommon and antibiotics are available in the form of either drops or ointment. Be sure that
all medicines used in the eye are marked plainly for use in the eye .Often the word"ophthalmic "is used to designate a
preparation as suitable for this purpose. This is a word derived from Greek.It means"pertaining to the eye."
In administering medications to the eye pull down the lower lid while the patient looks up. Apply the ointment just insidethe lower lid.
In putting drops in the eye, never drop the medicine on the pupil. Always apply it over the sclera or"white"of the eye as indicated above for ointments.
Isoniazid, PAS and Streptomycin
lsoniazid is a drug effective in the treatment of tuberculosis .The dosage is 100 mg. Three times daily. Together with PAS
(Para-amino-salicylic acid), 4 gm. Three times a day, a mild case of tuberculosis can be cared for on an ambulatory basis.
Streptomycin and dihydrostreptomycin are also potent drugs and can be used after or in combination with the above. These
drugs must never be used, however, unless under the direction of a physician.
This is a group of sulphur-containing drugs, some of which are used for the treatment of leprosy. The initial dosage of one tablet of 100 mg. The first week is increased to two tablets the next week. The doctor will watch for changes and the patient must follow his directions closely as the amount is increased further during following weeks.
These are serums from the blood of a horse that has been infected with certain bacteria in doses small enough so that the
horse itself will not get the disease but will develop a marked immunity to it. The horse is given subsequent increased doses
till it has worked up a high degree of immunity. Some of the horse's blood is then extracted and the serum from it is processed for medical use. The most important antiserums ate those against diphtheria and tetanus.
The bites of snakes and spiders are treated with serum developed in a similar way against the venoms. They are called
The doctor or nurse will skin-test the patient before giving him antiserum. Because he might be allergic to it. This is done by injecting 0.005 to 0. 1 cc. of the serum between the layers of the skin. If the patient is sensitive the skin will become red and swollen. Shoud this happen the patient can be desensitized by giving the same quantity every 30 minutes for several hours. The balance of the serum can be given at the end of this time in larger divided doses. The patient should then be put on antihistamines for 8 to 10 days. It should be understood that the immunity thus acquired lasts only three weeks.It is called"passive" immunity because the individual had no part in developing it. The horse did that for him.
When a person develops his own immunity as he does after a vaccination or after having had the actual disease,it is called "active" immunity. This last from six months to a lifetime.
Laxatives should never be given in the presence of abdominal pain or vomiting. Every attempt should be made to regulate the bowels by proper diet. Fruits often are not used as much as they should be. If used in good quantity they will usually take care
of the problem of constipation.
Milk of magnesia is a moderate laxative. The dose is one tablespoonful (1/2 oz.). As with all laxatives, the dose needs to be
individltalized, for everyone responds a little differently than others.
Cascara comes in tablets or liquid. It is a little irritating and may cause some cramps. Castor oil is a strong laxative, and should not be used for ordinary constipation. It is irritating and works fast. Should there be obstruction it would be digested and absorbed, and thus it would do no harm. However, milder laxatives should ordinarily be used.
Magnesium sulphate (Epsom salt) is also a severe laxative but this is due to the fact that most people take it in large doses.
Smaller doses may induce stools of soft consistency.
If one takes a laxative strong enough to give a watery stool he will not have a bowel movement the next day. Do not expect
it. Do not take a laxative till you have missed having a bowel movement for two or three full days. Try a soap suppository and see if that will effect a movement. This is made of a piece of soap about the size and shape of the end of one's finger.Moisten and insert it into the rectum.