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ANTISEPTIC

ANTISEPTICS AND INSECTICIDES


     Many times accidents occur where there are no antiseptics avaliable. In such situations one can clean the injured area with the use of soap and water. If one washes his own hands carefully and then cleans the wound using a soft cotton cloth or a swab of unspun cotton (cotton-wool) and good soap suds followed by a generous rinse, he can render the area surgically sterile in ten minutes . This should be done before bandaging and/or leaving the patient to a doctor.

Iodine Solution


      iodine is a good antiseptic for wounds that do not need to  be dressed. Never apply a dressing over skin painted with iodine .
A severe rash will break out. Also do not apply any mercuric ointment with it. This forms mercuric iodide which is very
irritating. Tincture of iodine is a 10% solution.
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Commercial Antiseptics


    There are commercial antiseptics available among which is cetavlon. It is used in wounds and may be covered with a
dressing. Dettol is used to disinfect furniture and floors. If diluted properly, it may be applied to the skin.

ANTISEPTIC soap

DDT and Gammexane


    These powders offer the most effective defence against insects of all kinds. They are not toxic to humans, but small pets and
birds do not tolerate them. They are used as a dry porwder or spray either on the body or on furniture such as beds.

Insulin


     Several kinds of insulin are on the market. One is the aqueous solution (dissolved in water). It is quick-acting and would need to be given three times daily to keep the blood sugar under control.
     Three other forms, the globin insulin, Lente insulin and the protamine zinc insulin, are all so changed chemically that they are absorbed slowly and keep the diabetes under control fot 24 hours. The dosage must be determined by a doctor and the patient must check with him at regular intervals.
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Tolbutamide and Diabinese


     These are tablets that are very useful in controlling the mild diabetes. Many diabetics who are overweight may be able to change from insulin to tablets after their weight becomes normal,
      Remember, diabetes must be kept under control throughout the patient's life, so he should not change or stop the medication
without consulting a physician.

Adrenaline (Epinephrine)


    Adrenaline is a secretion from the adrenal glands that is used in a solution of 1 to 100 as a nasal sptay to give relief from
attacks of asthma. It takes eftect in a matter of minutes. It also increases the pulse rate and blood ptessure, so one should have
his heart checked by a doctor before using adrenaline. If administered by hypodermic needle the solution should be one to 1, 000. Three-tenths of a C. C. Is sufficient for one injection. The pulse rate should then be checked again and if possible the blood
pressure also.

Cortisone


    This is a hormone developed by  the body, chemically similar to the male and female sex hormones. It is secretecl in the adrenal
glands which are located just above each kidney. Cortisone is called a stress hormone, for it enables the body to put forth extra eftort to fight off adverse situations. It has been modified by the chemist till the potency has been increased many-fold.
It helps in rheumatoid arthritis, asthma and many other diseases for which we have no specific treatment. It rmlst be given by a
qualified doctor. For if not used judiciously diabetes or peptic ulcers may develop.

Ergot


     Ergot is a preparation used in obstetrics. It causes the blood vessels of the body to contract and is helpful in conserving the
mother's blood. Not more than one dose three times a day for a  limit of three days is recommended lest it disturb the circulation in other parts of the body.
It is used in tablets of 1/320th of a grain
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Sodium Salicylate


     Aspirin is acetylsalicylic acid and sodium salicylate is the sodium salt of this acid. When one has aches or pains of a moderate nature or a simple headache, this drug may relieve the pain. Often one can relieve headache by means of a good enema, with a cold cloth to the head, or by giving the eyes a rest. Too many people resort to a pill instead of getting to the basic cause. If school children complain of headache, think first of eyes, then of constipation.

Normal Saline


      Normal saline is a term used to denote a solution consisting of the same concentration of salt in water as is found in the Fluids of the body. Such a solution is very soothing and can be used in the eyes or as a mouth-wash without causing
irritation. For this purpose it can be made by dissolving 1 teaspnonful of salt in 500 CC. (one pint) of boiled water. This can be given intravenously but in that case it must be prepared with distilled water and sterilized.

Potassium lodide


      This medicine is very useful to liquefy the sticky mucus of asthma and often win help to abort attacks. A saturated solution is used. Give ten drops three times a day. If it causes a rash to break out on the skin it would have to be discontinued its use with an antihistamine is very helpful in aborting attacks of asthma.

Silver Nitrate


       This silver salt ls dissolved in distilled water, A 10° solution is used to cauterize the bleeding area in the nose and also to cauterize a "canker sore"in the mouth. For applying it, take a stiff reed or straw about six inches long. Twist a very small bit of cotton on the end of it. Dip it into the solution and press against the bleeding area or canker sore, In a moment the area will be white. Should there be need for heavier cautery, see a doctor.
      Be careful not to get this solution on the skin or clothes It will make a black spot which will not wash off. On th the  skin
it will eventually wear off as the skin is shed. In case some should accidentally fall on the skin or clothes. wash at once in a little salt water or dilute ammonia
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Mercury Compounds


These are mentioned only to be condemned. Calome1 (mercurous chloride) is used as a laxative. It is One of the oldest laxatives in medical usage but is now never
used in up-to-date professional circles. Its use should be stopped entirely.
    Bichloride of mercury (mercuric chloride) is used as an antiseptic for douches but it is such a deadly poison it should never be around the house. Accidental poisoning can possibly
take place. Such poisoning results in death due to kidney failure ; and the last days of the victim are most miserable, "BAL"(British antilewisite) is the antidote for this poison.

Phenobarbitone (Phenobarbital or Luminal)


     This drug makes one sleepy. It is used at night for this purpose ; but it is easy to form the habit of depending On it to induce sleep. One must use it only in emergency situations.
     Its use in epilepsy is a standard practice. Patients take from 15 to 90 mg. Three times a day to control the seizures, After patients take it for some time it ceases to make them sleepy but continues to control the attacks.
      Dilantin sodium is an improved medi. cation used for epileptics. It is more expensive but also more effective. It comes in 30 mg. capsules and tablets. One three times daily is a suitable dosage to control seizures. Your doctor will establish the dosage. It must be continued year in and year out.

READ ALSO: MISCELLANEOUS MEDICINES.



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