A FEMALE anopheles mosquito


   This is the commonest endemic disease in the tropics. It is caused by Plasmodium infection as a result of mosquito bite. It is the commonest cause of fever in our environment. The female anopheles mosquito is the vector. 
There are four species of plasmodium namely ; 
1. Plasmodium Falciparium ; 
3. Plasmodium Ovale ; 
2. Plasmodium Malaria ; 
4. Plasmodium Vivax. 
   If a female anopheles mosquito bites and suck the blood of a person having malaria fever, the mosquito becomes infected. The male and female gamatecytes in the infected blood grow and mature in the 
gastrointestinal tract of the mosquito. The male gamete known as the microgamate exflagellates. Fertilization then occur to produce a zygote. The zygote progressively develops into 00 kinete, young oocyte 
and segmenting oocyte. Theoocyte rupture to release sporozoites into the salivary gland of the mosquito. 
    Should this mosquito bite another person, it deposits the sporozoites into the person's blood stream. These sporozoites move from the blood into the liver within thirty minutes. Here they undergo development and break up haemoglobin to get oxygen and are therefore pigmented. These pigmented sporozoites are called merozoites. From the liver, these merozoites are released into the 
blood stream. Most of these merozoites invade the red blood cells and some can re-infect the liver in a secondary exoerythrocytic cycle, Development of the merozoites in the red blood cell produce 
trophozoites. Further multiplication of the trophozoites give rise to schizonts. Schizonts rupture to produce more merozites. These merozites differentiate into immature gamates which eventually 
mature to male and female gaments. Check out more.


1. Fever which may be accompanied by chills and rigor. 

2. Headache. 

3. Joint and body pain. 

4. Sweating. 

5. Los of appetite. 

6. Weakness. 

7. There may be nausea and or vomiting. 

Investigations :-

-Blood film


1. Good environmental sanitation by clearing of surrounding bushes providing adequate drainage.

2. Providing mosquito nets.

3. Taking daraprim tablets once every week especially amongst pregnant woman and sicklers.


Being the commonest disease condition in our environment many drug companies have research on one form of treatment
modalities or the other and have come up with as many antimalarial drugs as possible. But by far the most effective of all remain chloroquine and it as remained the mainstay of treatment.
Antihistamine may be added for those who react to  chloroquine. The list of anti malaria drugs is given below and it is up to theclinician to use any one of his choice.
1. Paludrine.

2. Maloxine.

3. Malerisch.

4. Fansida.

5. Fansimef.

6. Metakelfin.

7. Chloroquine.

8. Quinine.

9. Halfan.

10. Paluther.

Supportive drugs Include :
1. Intravenous fluid if indicated.
2. Analgesics
3. Haematinics.
4. Multivitamins
5. Anti-histamine.


(a) Cerebral malaria especially in children

(b) Anaemia.

(C) Jaundice.

(d) Black water fever

Typical treatment :- 

1. lm Analgin 5cc stat
2. lm Chloroquine 5cc
3. lm Vitamin Bco 3 cc, dly 3/7
4. Tab septrin b-d ×5/7
5. Tab Pcm tds ×3/7
6. Tab Fergon tds × 5/7
 7.  Tab Multivite tds ×5/7



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