VIRAL INFECTION .
Acute Herpetic Gingivitis :it is caused by the
herpes simplex virus, which is the most common
cause of gingival inflammation in children. Acute
herpetic gingivostomatis occurs most frequently in
intants between the ages of 1 and 3 years, but adults may also be affected. The child becomes sick and
refuses to eat. Within about 24 hours, the mouth is
very sore, the temperature is high, and cervical
lymph nodes are enlarged and tender. Fomation of
vesicle on the gum and oral mucosa, particularly on
the floor of the tongue and on the hard and soft
palate ; the vesicles soon burst and leave shallow,
painful ulcers. The lesions heal within about 10
TREATMENT OF ACUTE HERPETIC. GINGIVOSTOMATIS
1. The patient should know that this disease
2. Soft diet of cold rather than hot foods and a
high fluid intake are recommended.
3. If the patient cannot sleep, analgesics, and/or
hypnotic and sedative drug may be prescribed
by the dentist ; to restore normal sleep to the
4. Report to the nearest dental clinic. Although
further treatment is essential, one or more
of the following methods may be used :
a. Anti-viral drugs. Acyclovir (zovirax) : One 200mg tables or 5ml elixer to be taken five times a day for 5days. This drug is used especially for the treatment of herpes simplex infections in immunosuppressed patients.
- Carboxymethyl cellulose Gelatin paste (orabase - - Choline salicylate Dental paste (Bolnjela, Teejel) : - - Chlorhexidine Gel (corsodyl Gel)
These must be applied carefully to the affected areas as directed by the manufacturer's instructions.
Tetracycline mouth-bath (Tetracycline mixture) Chlorhexidine mouthwash (corsodyles mouthwash). These solutions should be rinsed around the mouth for 2-3 minute several times a day will help to limit secondary infections that may likely to occur .
Acute Necrotising Ulcerative Gingivitis : It is also called vincent's infection. It is mainly associated with poor oral hygiene. This disease ls characterized by rapid destruction of gum i. e interdental papillae and the formation of grey, localized to a single gum, but in severe may be cases the whole mouth may be aftected. There may be marked bad mouth odour i. e halitosis, which Is characteristic of the disease.
TREATMENT OF ACUTE NECROTISING
- Adherence to oral hygiene instructions is. necessary to avoid occurrence.
- Visit to dental clinic where all the cause of the disease will be removed by scaling an irrigation with diluted hydrogen peroxide.
- Antibiotic drug (metronidazole tablets 200mg or 400g) may be prescribed to be taken three times a day for five days.
- After about one week, when the acute phase has subsided, the patient maybe asked to come for thorough scaling by the therapist. An ultrasonic scaler is preferable for this scaling.
Candidiasis (candidosis) : It is caused by
tfungus candida albicans. It is the most common
mouth manifestation of HIV infection. There
are mainly two types :
a. Acute pseudomembranous candidiasis : It isalso called mouth thrush. It is mostly seen in
children. A baby may become infected at birth by
direct contact with candida infection of the mother's
vagina, but it may also occur in apparently healthy
children. Mouth thrush may also result from
prolonged use of antibiotics. Mouth thrush is
resistant to most of the commonly used antibiotics
and may multiply when other microorganisms are
suppressed (Andlaw, 1999).
The symptoms of mouth thrush are soft,
elevated, creamy white patches that cover small
or large areas of the mouth; the patches can be
removed easily and leave raw bleeding surface.
TREATMENT OF MOUTH THRUSH
1. Patients should avoid contaminated utensils like spoons, plates, etc.
2. Visit to dental clinic where anti-fungal drugs may be prescribed. The common anti-fungal drugs:
4. Topica anti fungal drug
miconazole (Darktarin oral Gel)
5. Systemic anti fungal drug :
miconazole (Darklarin tablets)
fluconazole (Diflucan Capsules, tablet Or
Nystatin (Ny[stan oral suspension and Pastile )
b. Chronic atrophic candidiass : It is alsocalled denture stomatitis. This type of candidiasis
affects denture or dental appliances user. The
affected area becomes inflamed, appearing bright
red and spongy. Denture, springs or screws on thc
appliances may become buried in the inflamed
tissue. Obviously, this condition is caused by local
irritation from rough or ill fitting denture or
Appliance, or from poor oral hygiene.
TREATMENT OF DENTURE STOMATITIS1 . Inspect the fitting surface of the denture or
appliance and smooth any sharp edges.
2 . Adherence to oral hygiene instructions,
especially how to care for the denture.
3 . Ideally, denture should not be worn until
healing has completed.
4. Prescription of anti fungal drugs, as for