This is an aspect of human health determined by environmental factors such as physical chemical biological, social and psychosocial factor. It involves accessing, corre cting, controlling and preventing those environmental factors that can potentially affect adversely the health of present and future generation.
There are two type of environment-natural and created environment.

      The natural environment may cause problems for human health especially, temperature fluctuations, forest fire, erosions, tidal waves and landslides.

       The human created environment such as slum areas in many cities also presents some health hazard such as poor housing ; lack of power supply, poor availability of water improper sewage disposal and poor environmental sanitation. The ultimate aim of environmental health is to protect people from hazardous environments and to promote a healthy environment.

       Environmental health can be discussed under the following :

-Water supply

-Excreta disposal

-Waste management

-Vector control

-Shelter/Housing and planning

-Hygiene education

-Food safety and hygiene

-Protection from radiation

-Air quality/control of pollution


Water is a basic and essential human need. Sources of water are :
-Surface water such as stream, river, lake and ponds
-Ground water such as springs and wells
-Rain water

     Each source should be adequately protected and the water stored properly to avoid contamination. It is very important that water be treated before use. Some treatment modalities are flocculation and sedimentation filtration and also
disinfection. Disinfection by chlorination is the last stage of treatment. It is aimed at killing pathogenic organisms in the water.

    Uses of water : 

-Domestic uses include, drinking, personal hygiene, cleaning of cooking utensils and gardening

-Irrigation of crops

-Generation of electricity

-Transportation such as canals

     Human excreta is an important source of pathogenic organisms, especially the causative agents of diarrhoeal diseases. It attracts flies which not only spread pathogenic organisms contained in the excreta but also breed in them.
Therefore the disposal of excreta is of major public health significance.
     In this blog there are two basic choices of excreta disposal

-Pit latrine
-pour flush toilet
-The objective of any disposal method should be to dispose of potentially dangerous excreta

-To prevent the proliferation of vectors that might breed in such waste.

-They should be safe. For example, it should not be possible

-They are located to avoid the potential of contaminating water sources.
      In the civilized society and now in most cities in the tropics,excreta may be disposed by sewerage.


A part from excreta the other type of waste common to the
tropics include :

-Domestic waste such as food waste

-Waste from bathing and other domestic washing

-Medical waste such as needles syringes, drip and drip giving
set, swabs and others.

-industrial waste

     Adequate storage of domestic waste is necessary as
they accumulate continuously. Organic waste may be
composted with storage while inorganic wastes like paper, tins
and glass may be recycled.

    The collection of refuse for disposal should be handled
by a special body empowered to do so. Collection workers need
protective clothing and education to reduce the risk of infection
to themselves. After collecting waste, a proper method of
disposal is very necessary. The disposal method seen in the
area are :



    Medical waste otherwise known as healthcare waste is a
waste resulting from activities within healthcare facilities such as
hospitals, clinics, medical laboratories, medical research
centres ; pharmaceutical industries, radiological centres and
funeral homes and mortuaries. Medical waste poses a great
threat to health and safety. Some of these wastes are sharp
while others are pathologicals.
Standard method of medical waste management include :
-Waste segregation

-Waste reuse

-Treatment and disposal

-Intermediate storage .

Other method include:  -Vector control

                                       -Shelter/Housing and planning

                                       -Hygiene education

                                       -Food safety and hygiene

                                       -Protection from radiation

                                      -Air quality/control of pollution. Here


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