Tooth Extraction using lower anterior forceps
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                    Tooth Extraction

   In recent time, tooth extraction is the most common medical procedure done in dentistry. With the help of the medical scientist, tooth extraction are regard to simple and easy procedure done and is less painful.
     However, removing the last molar teeth ( 3rd molar) may be difficult because  its not easily accessible to reach the extraction site, and sometimes 3rd molar are always hidden. Thus, making it difficult.
Everybody have various reasons to extract his/her teeth or tooth .

Reason to remove your teeth 

  1. Aesthetic reason. 
  2. Damage tooth. 
  3. Accident. 
  4. Dead tooth. 
  5. Avulsed tooth.
      When it becomes necessary to remove a diseased, damaged, or
malpositioned tooth, the procedure is handled as a form of minor surgery,usually with administration of a local anesthetic to the nerves supplying the tooth area. However, there is no standard routine for extraction of a tooth because of the numerous individual variations associatied with each case. The dentist usually. Has a medical history of the patient available, showing such information as allergies to drugs, and medications used by the patient which might react with those employed in oral surgery. Because the mouth contains many millions of bacteria, all possible precautions are taken to prevent entry of the germs into the tooth socket.
    The condition of the patient is checked during and immediately
after tooth extraction, in the event that some complication develops. The patient provided with analgesic (pain killing) and other  needed medications along with instructions regarding control of any
post operative pain or bleeding. The dentist also may offer special diet information with suggested meals for the recovery period, which usually is quite brief.

Complication Of Extraction

DRY SOCKET : Severe pain may develop several days after a tooth has been extracted if a blood clot that forms in the socket becomes
dislodged. The condition, commonly calied dry socket, can involve
infection of the alveolar bone that normally  surrounds the roots of the tooth ; loss of the clot can expose the bone tissue to the environment and organisms that produce osteitis, or inflammation of the bone tissue. Dry socket may be treated by irrigating the socket with warm salt water and packing it with strips of medicated gauze. The patient also is given analgesics, sedatives, and other medications as needed to control the pain and infection.
    General anesthetics are  somtimes necessary for complicated oral
surgery. In such cases,there are available dental offices or clinics
that are as well equipped and staffed as hospital operating rooms.

Endodontic Therapy 

Tooth extraction because of caries is less common today  than in  previous years, although an estiinated 25 million Americans have had all of their teeth removed. Modern preventive dentistry techniques of endodontics now make it possible to save many teeth that would have been extracted in past decades after the spread of decay into the pulp canal. The procedures include root canal therapy, pulp capping, and pulpotomy. 


One the tooth has fully developed in the jaw, the nerve is not needed, so if the pulp is infected the nerve as well 
as the pulp can be removed. Only minor eftects are noticeable in the tooth structure after the pulp is removed, and the dentist compensates for these in filling the tooth after root canal therapy. 

    Briefly, the procedure of root canal work begins by examination and testing of the pulp viability. The pulp may be tested by heat, cold, or by an electrical device called a vitalometer which measure the degree of sensation the patient feels in a tooth. If the pulp is dead, the patient will feel no sensation, even at the highest output of current. 

   After the degree of vitality in the pulp has been determined, a local anesthetic is injected and the dentist begins removing the pulp, using dental drills and hand instruments, By means of X-ray pictures, the dentist  measures the length of the root, which may be about one and a half times the length of the crown. Stops 
Or other markers are placed on the root excavation tools to show the  dentist when the instmment has reached the end of the root. The canal is then sterilized and filled with gutta percha a tough plastic substance silver, or a combination of the two, and a cap is added. 


 Pulp capping consists of building a cap over the exposed pulp with layers of calcium hydroxide paste, which is covered by zinc oxide and topped with a firm cement. READ MORE.


A pulpotomy procedure involves removal of the pulp in the pulp chamber within the crown of the tooth, while leaving the root canal pulp in place. The amputated pulp ends are treated and a pulp capping procedure is used to restore the crown of the tooth. 


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