This picture show surgery of a cleft lip and corrected disfigurement

    Everything under health is created by the medical scientists, and scientists as given us the power, wisdom and everlasting long life to rule over nonbeing. Every organ in the body are fearfully and wonderfully made.
     However, in recent time the ability of a of a man have grow so high, ability to rebuild human bodies from parts of other humans or from an artificial organs to human organs .
      In recent time, The ability of man given by the scientists, the medical scientists, researchers, the travellers and many others , have reached a goal to use there ability achieved for  those thing's.
      So many years back ,tells us the medical efforts towards transplanting of organs and organ donors. The ability to transplant limbs  and other tissues like;kidneys ;hearts, to save lives. And enabled the disabled persons in one way or the other.
       In recent time, medical scientists have discovered so many solutions to many medical problems, and some of the challenges facing organ transplanting, and so many scientists have acquired great skills, while some have the ability to travel like a bird over the sky and travel to the moon and many others good stuff.

                The medical challenges.

      Although,the medical scientists face so many challenges, but they were able to over come so much challenges.
Some of the challenges is tissue problem, some tissue works very fine ,why some are not. For example: the tissues of the person receiving the transplant tend to reject the tissues of the transplanted organ. The tissue rejection is somehow similar to allergy to the body's reaction to foreign bodies or foreign materials, just like a pregnant woman reaction towards the 3months of the pregnancy, including infection or organisms.
     However, each individual has is set of antigens that are peculiar to that personal person, because of genetic variations among different persons. This incompatible  antigens that reject foreign bodies are on top of the surfaces of the tissue cells. But in most cases the antigens on the cells of the transplanted organ do not match those of the person receiving the transplant,so the person body refuses to accept the transplant.
      The major solution to this is to find a match or identity, who are born with the same set of antigens.
For example, the organ of a twin can be transplanted to the other twin with 90% chance that the body antigen may not reject it.
Antigens on the tissue cells of brothers and sisters and of the parents may be similar to each other, because of their close relationship and one blood, and may not be compatible as those of identical twins. Even those that are not related have a very low antigen compatibility.

                 The grafting types.

   The medical scientists have no problem whatsoever in transferring tissues through the process of graft fearfully , and we have various types of graft, but I will mention few. Skin grafts, bone grafts, and blood vessel transplants are commonly made with a patient's own tissues, which have the same antigens, as in spinal fusions, repair of leg arteries. and so many others.
     However, tissue transplant from one human to another are called homografts . And tissue transplant between the same body are called autografts.
Also tissues from one species that are transplanted to another; they offer the greatest risk, and are used mainly for temporary, for example: it may be used to cover the burned area of a person, but it we be rejected, but it we provide some help in healing process of the burns area.
     In recent time, more experienced have been established through the used of skin grafting. After some sort of second rejection from the skin grafts the body buildup  the antibodies because of the first rejection.
      And the same rejection can occur in transplant of kidneys, hearts, and so many organs too.

         What are the method used ?

       In other to make the body more compatible to foreign bodies and to an organ transplant certain measure has been put in placed, which are; immunosuppressive drugs are injected into the tissue of the patient to suppress their foreign bodies from rejecting the antibodies too quickly.
       However, by suppressing the body immune system have lower the power of the body to fight against diseases , thus , making the patient vulnerable to other diseases.

     Secondly, the success in human transplanting was helped by the development of a system of matching antigens through the related process of lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell of the donor and recipient.
For example: a dozen lymphocytes was identified during blood donor and the patient. Thus, making the blood ready for transfusion.
     However, Antigen may not be important in some organ in the body such as cornea (eye) transplant , because is a kind of tissue with little to or no blood vessels, so therefore antibodies can not attack it.
     Also bone also have little to. Thus, with minimum risk or rejection, such as repairing fractures and some other orthopedic procedure.


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