Local and General Anaesthesia

General anaesthesia

Loss of sensation produced by putting the patient to sleep, thereby preventing reception of pain stimuli by the brain.

Local anaesthesia

A localized state of insensibility to pain produced by preventing conjunction of stimuli along a nerve, by placing a chemical somewhere along its length.

Topical Anaesthesia

Loss of pain by application of Anaesthetic sprays, solutions, pastes, and ointments to the surface mucosa or skin, from where they penetrate through the outer epithelium to reach the nerve fibres.

Symptoms of general anaesthesia

  1. Acute infection at the usual site of injection, as the needle would carry bacteria to the deeper tissues. Also, local Anaesthetics tend not to function in such areas.
  2. Where the mouth cannot be opened sufficiently wide, for example with muscular spasm and temporomandibular joint disturbances.
  3. Extra Oral drainage of facial and neck swellings.
  4. Extraction of many teeth from all parts of the mouth.
  5. Where there is a history of allergy to injection solutions.
  6. Extraction or drainage of acutely abscessed teeth.
  7. Major oral surgery including treatment of jaw fractures.
  8. Full mouth conservation for severely mentally and physically handicapped patients, and the very nervous.
Putting the patient to sleep, thereby preventing reception of pain stimuli

Symptoms of local anaesthesia

Source: Internet achieved books
  1. Pulpotomy
  2. Painful cavity preparation
  3. Extirpation of pulp
  4. Extraction of teeth; especially where one cannot obtain the services of a separate anaesthetist, where the patient wishes to immediately drive a car, or where his medical condition precludes a general Anaesthetic (including disorders of the cardiac and respiratory systems)
  5. Minor oral surgery, including apicectomy, gingivectomy, removal of cysts, drainage of abscesses by local incision
  6. Incorporation into dressings for painful sockets, ulcers, and wounds.

What are the uses of Topical Anaesthetics?

  1. Prevention of gingival discomfort while taking copper ring impressions.
  2. Reduction of sensitivity of oral mucosa for patients who react during the taking of impression or radiographs.
  3. Prevention of pain from needles during injections
  4. Relief of painful sockets, ulcers , and wounds.

Inhalation Anaesthesia

This is a means of introducing a gaseous anesthetic through the nose or mouth, via a mask or tube. The commonest inhalation anaesthetic agents are nitrous oxide, oxygen, and fluorhane (halothane).
  For example : oxygen is delivered from a black cylinder with a white collar, and nitrous oxide frome a blue one. Fluothane or trilene (trichloroethylene) is added from a small bottle incorporated in the circuit. The nose or face mask is held above or on the patients nose allowed to inhale the mixture. The anaesthetist controls the quantities of each gas reaching the patient, thus making the 'sleep' deeper or lighter, thereby controlling the patients responses. The anaesthetic is depend until the patient experiences no pain.

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